An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age
- To investigate if young women resort to abortion in the event of an unwanted pregnancy.
- To examine if abortion if a reason for the increased mortality rate among young women.
- To examine the chances of survival of young women who engage in abortion.
- To investigate if peer pressure can lead to the increase of abortion among young women in the society.
This chapter deals with the review of related literature on abortion as a causative factor to the increase in mortality rate among adolescents.
Concept of abortion
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus (Grimes, 2010). Maternal morbidity and mortality related to complications of unsafe abortion have been identified as major public health problems. Around 56 million abortions are performed each year in the world with a little under half done unsafely (WHO, 2012). Since ancient times, abortions have been done using herbal medicines, sharp tools, or through other traditional methods. Abortion laws and cultural or religious views of abortions are different around the world. In some areas abortion is legal only in specific cases such as rape, problems with the fetus, poverty, risk to a woman‟s health, or incest (Culwell et al, 2010). In many places there is much debate over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of abortion. Those who oppose abortion often maintain that an embryo or fetus is a human with a right to life and may compare abortion to murder. Those who favour legality of abortion often hold that a woman has a right to make decisions about her own body (Mahowald, 2017). In many places where abortion is illegal or carries a heavy social stigma, medical reporting of abortion is not reliable. The reasons why women have abortion are diverse and vary across the world. Some of the most common reasons are to postpone child bearing to a more suitable time or to focus energies and resources on existing children (Culwell et al, 2010). Other reasons include being unable to afford a child either in terms of the direct costs of raising a child or the loss of income while caring for the child, lack of support from the father, inability to afford additional children, desire to provide schooling for existing children, disruption of one‟s own education, relationship problems with their partner, a perception of being too young to have a child, unemployment, and not being willing to raise a child conceived as a result of rape or incest (Culwell et al, 2010). Some abortions are done as a result of societal problems. These might include the preference for children of a specific sex, disapproval of single or early motherhood, stigmatisation of people with disabilities, insufficient economic support for families, lack of access to or rejection of contraceptive methods, or efforts towards population control (such as China‟s one-child policy).
Spontaneous abortion has been identified as a complication associated with early pregnancy. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), expulsion of fetus weighing 500g or less or at 20-22 weeks gestation is termed spontaneous abortion (Regan, 2000). It was reported that most causes of spontaneous abortion are of maternal origin (Goddijn, 2000). Of the total pregnancies, 15-20% will result in spontaneous abortion (Linda, 2011). A study conducted by Lubna et al. (2014) reported that older age at menarche, husbands older than 50 years, consanguineous marriage, and family history of abortion, was significantly associated with spontaneous abortion whereas age of the mother, parity, socioeconomic status, use of spacing method, and diabetes or obesity were not associated with spontaneous abortion.
This chapter describes the method and procedure that were used in the study under the following sub-headings:
- Design of the study
- Sample and sampling procedure
- Validity of instrument
- Reliability of instrument
- Method of data collection
- Data analysis
Design of Study
The survey research was used in this study according to Davis (1975), the survey research may be employed to enumerate the characteristic abilities, behaviour or opinions of subject to delineate through words or qualitative values the status of a group, institution, structure or other facilities or to human beings or subject.
The design was used to investigate abortion as a causative factor to the increase in mortality rate among adolescent (ages 15 – 20) in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Abortion has been discussed in this study from the point of view of many experts.
The definition and types of abortion has been explained. Reasons, solutions, dangers and complications that result from the termination of an unwanted pregnancy has also been discussed.
The topic abortion as a causative factor to the increase in the mortality rate among young women in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State is one that needs to be further researched into so as to find a solution to the problems of procured abortion among adolescents in Egor Local Government Area.
The researcher aimed at creating awareness on the dangers and complications of abortions, and also to find out the causes of abortion among young teenage girls in Egor Local Government. The researcher’s aimed also at finding an alternative or solution to abortion in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.
Throughout this study, the researcher came across various views and opinions on abortion in the country. Presently, abortion in Nigeria is illegal, and its is the major cause of death among adolescents. And for this reason, it should not exist in our society except when the health of the woman is in danger but this not the case instead abortion is still practiced.
Many adolescents engage in abortion as a result of shame, poverty, pressure from peers, etc. Many of the dangers and complications that result from abortion, are from those performed by unqualified doctors and nurses.
In this study, 28% of the respondents strongly agreed that criminal abortions are mainly causes of death among adolescents and 62% of the respondents agreed to this issue. That is, abortion done by quacks are the leading cause of death among adolescents.
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