Effect of Laboratory Method of Teaching on Students Academic Performance in Cell Division in Senior Secondary Schools in Bonny Local Government Area
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain whether laboratory method contribute to the student’s academic performance.
- To examine causes of students’ poor performance of student in laboratory.
- To find out the method of laboratory teaching on students academic performance in cell division in secondary schools in Bonny local government.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The Laboratory Method
The American physics classroom was a rather unscientific place in the 1860s. Indeed, most of the textbooks for physical science bore another name: Natural Philosophy. This tradition, which held sway for most of the 19th century, relied heavily on textbooks as the primary source of knowledge and recitation as main instructional method (Norton 1870; Quackenbos, 1871; Steele, 1871; Peck, 1871; Reese 1995; Meltzer & Otero, 2015). Criticism of this tradition increased in the later decades of the 19th century (Clarke, 1880; AAAS, 1881, 1888; Wead, 1884; NEA 1887) as a distinct tradition of instruction emerged. Bearing the title of Physics, this new tradition championed the laboratory method as the ideal means of inculcating an understanding of the natural, inanimate world. Seen as approximating the actual work of scientists more closely and meaningfully, the laboratory method gained favor during the final three decades of the 19th century. Professional groups and the Bureau of Education began sponsoring assessments of the general state of affairs in the methods used to teach physical science in America’s schools (Clarke, 1880; AAAS, 1881, 1888; Wead, 1884; NEA 1887). The resulting reports, highly critical of the older Natural Philosophy tradition, ushered in a new wave of textbooks as authors picked up on the rising demand for books promoting more laboratory work by students (Gage, 1881 & 1888; Trowbridge, 1884; Chute, 1889). These textbooks frequently bearing the newer title Physics emphasized two central tenets of the Scientific Revolution: thinking for oneself and investigation through experimentation. At the same time universities, led by Harvard and the John Hopkins model, began to change their entrance requirements to match the new expectations. This rising popularity of the laboratory method can be understood as a consequence 14 of the rapid scientific and technological advances of the period which saw the expansion of the railroads, telegraph lines followed by the telephone and then electric lighting. In a world in which technological advances came to be part of everyday life, the investigative spirit of the Scientific Revolution pushed into the American classroom
According to Onach (1994) emphasized that teaching involves more than talking all time. Resources such as diagrams, field works and real objects when effectively used, explains the subject very well better than lecture methods and the proper place for effective practical activities is the laboratory. According to Iloeje (2005) in his lesson for effective biology practical activities stated that all the five senses used, the sense of sight is hights of them. At a workshop organized by the Cross River State Ministry of Education for science Teachers Vacation Course (TVC) in 2008 in Nigeria, the science teachers complained that laboratory facilities for teaching various science subjects were not adequate in secondary schools for teaching and learning sciences. Secondary schools laboratories should be furnished with adequate laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning science. The laboratory is a forum for science teachers and students within a building to interact with apparatus or equipment under controlled conditions when seeking answers to the problems in nature.He further views that science most especially chemistry in its true form can hardly be taught or learnt without appropriate use of the laboratory equipment/materials. He contended that although a lot of reasoning and through process skills come into physics, yet science cannot start and end without facts.(House,2009) Florendo(2007) suggested that students should receive training in using laboratory facilities to approach the solution of problems through a proposed strategy and active involvement in the 8 pursuit of the solution of an average Nigerian secondary school student, which they shall encounter with authorities in different shade within the education setup. Some of such “authorities” will include the teachers, text books, visual aids among others. Johnson et al (2006), Observed that in schools where laboratory apparatuses are inadequate, chemistry is usually taught theoretically. They further observe that this approach does not assist students to develop the science process skills approach to the study of chemistry. Students should be exposed to laboratory apparatuses during the chemistry lesson in order to develop the appropriate process skills but unfortunately students show that teaching of chemistry in region secondary schools falls short of certain expectations.( Ezeliora,2008). Laboratory teaching makes the students to learn about nature of science and technology in order to foster the knowledge of human enterprise of science and understanding of the child. Dienya and Gbamannja (1990) opined that science is known to be a way of doing certain things by the observing natural phenomena, quantifying the observed things, integration of such quantities and interpretation of the results in order to make useful meaning out of the exercise. The students can identify cause and effect relationships in this process develops important skills (Udonfu,2009).
The research design adopted in this research work is the survey research design which involves the usage of self-designed questionnaire in the collection of data. Under the survey research design, primary data of this study will be collected from selected secondary schools in Cell Division in Bonny Local Government Area in order to determine effect of Laboratory Method of Teaching on Students Academic Performance. The design was chosen because it enables the researcher to collect data without manipulation of any variables of interest in the study. The design also provides opportunity for equal chance of participation in the study for respondents.
Population of Study
The population of study is the census of all items or a subject that possess the characteristics or that have the knowledge of the phenomenon that is being studied (Asiaka, 1991). It also means the aggregate people from which the sample is to be drawn.
Population is sometimes referred to as the universe. The population of this research study will be Seventy-five (75) selected staffs of selected secondary schools in Cell Division in Bonny Local Government Area
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter is about the analysis and presentation of data collected from the field through questionnaire. The analysis of the data with particular question immediately followed by the presentation of findings.
As mentioned in chapter three, 63 questionnaires were administered and 50 were retrieved and necessary analysis was carried out on them and presented as follows:
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of Laboratory Method of Teaching on Students Academic Performance in Cell Division in Senior Secondary Schools in Bonny Local Government Area. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of Laboratory Method of Teaching on Students Academic Performance
This study was on effect of Laboratory Method of Teaching on Students Academic Performance in Cell Division in Senior Secondary Schools in Bonny Local Government Area. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain whether laboratory method contribute to the student’s academic performance, to examine causes of students’ poor performance of student in laboratory and to find out the method of laboratory teaching on students academic performance in cell division in secondary schools in Bonny local government . The total population for the study is 75 selected secondary schools in Cell Division in Senior Secondary Schools in Bonny Local Government Area. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Use of laboratories in these secondary schools does not match with the objectives in the sciences syllabuses. In general all the secondary schools which were involved in this study had shortage of science teachers and laboratory technicians are absent. Teachers were inadequate and therefore could not teach science well as suggested in the syllabuses. They taught large classes and had heavy teaching load. Under this condition the participation of students during teaching and learning process becomes poorer as the class had a lot of students. Government should find strategy to overcome the shortage of teachers and to train laboratory technicians.
Students’ enrollment should correspond with increase in teaching resources including laboratories, equipment, chemicals, teaching models and specimen to facilitate teaching both theoretically and practically.
Government should provide more laboratory equipment to schools to strengthen more the learning of students. There is a need for the government to provide more funds for construction of proper laboratories to secondary schools.
Due to the shortage of teachers the government and other stakeholders should find alternative ways of training more science teachers for secondary schools.
Teachers should be exposed to various types of local teaching materials through seminars and workshops in the district levels and science exhibitions conducted national wide to emphasize on the importance of improvisation and use of the local equipment and material for conducting experiments.
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