Public Health Project Topics

A Seminar on Challenges of Cesarean Section to Child Bearing

A Seminar on Challenges of Cesarean Section to Child Bearing

A Seminar on Challenges of Cesarean Section to Child Bearing


Objectives of the study

  1. To examine the concept of caesarean section.
  2. To examine the challenges of caesarean section.
  3. The effect of caesarean section on child bearing.



Concept of caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver babies. A caesarean section is often necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. Reasons for this may include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, or problems with the placenta or umbilical cord. A caesarean delivery may be performed based upon the shape of the mother’s pelvis or history of a previous C-section. A trial of vaginal birth after C-section may be possible. The World Health Organization recommends that caesarean section be performed only when medically necessary. Some C-sections are performed without a medical reason, upon request by someone, usually the mother.

A C-section typically takes 45 minutes to an hour. It may be done with a spinal block, where the woman is awake, or under general anesthesia. A urinary catheter is used to drain the bladder, and the skin of the abdomen is then cleaned with an antiseptic. An incision of about 15 cm (6 inches) is then typically made through the mother’s lower abdomen. The uterus is then opened with a second incision and the baby delivered. The incisions are then stitched closed. A woman can typically begin breastfeeding as soon as she is out of the operating room and awake. Often, several days are required in the hospital to recover sufficiently to return home.

C-sections result in a small overall increase in poor outcomes in low-risk pregnancies. They also typically take longer to heal from, about six weeks, than vaginal birth. The increased risks include breathing problems in the baby and amniotic fluid embolism and postpartum bleeding in the mother. Established guidelines recommend that caesarean sections not be used before 39 weeks of pregnancy without a medical reason. The method of delivery does not appear to have an effect on subsequent sexual function.

In 2012, about 23 million C-sections were done globally. The international healthcare community has previously considered the rate of 10% and 15% to be ideal for caesarean sections. Some evidence finds a higher rate of 19% may result in better outcomes. More than 45 countries globally have C-section rates less than 7.5%, while more than 50 have rates greater than 27%. Efforts are being made to both improve access to and reduce the use of C-section. In the United States as of 2017, about 32% of deliveries are by C-section. The surgery has been performed at least as far back as 715 BC following the death of the mother, with the baby occasionally surviving. Descriptions of mothers surviving date back to 1500. With the introduction of antiseptics and anesthetics in the 19th century, survival of both the mother and baby became common.





Birth by cesarean affects the mother as well as ger baby. A long labor preceding a cesarean, pain from the surgery, complications such as developing a fever, your reaction to medications, or developing an infection may make it difficult for you to be with your baby right after birth. Holding, feeding, and soothing your baby may be more painful than you anticipated. The mother and the baby will benefit from skin-to-skin contact and rooming in (having the baby in your room as opposed to the nursery) as soon as possible. But you should take the time you need to feel ready to have your baby.


Should you have a cesarean delivery, the following suggestions can help you and your baby get off to a healthier and satisfying start together.

  1. In the operating room, after your baby has been born if you are feeling well, ask that one of your arms be released and your baby be placed belly-down on your chest as soon as it is safe. You can also ask that the baby be placed skin-to-skin with your partner as soon as it is safe. Your baby will be less fussy and more ready to breastfeed.
  2. Ask that a lactation specialist help you to recognize your baby’s hunger signs, to position your baby to latch on correctly at your breast, to support you to continue to breastfeed while in the hospital, and to provide you with a list of community resources that you can access once you are home.
  3. Your health insurance may reimburse you for the services of a lactation consultant once your home and for the rental of a breast pump if you need one.
  4. You may want to draft a birth plan to communicate your needs and wishes for staff support with breastfeeding.
  5. You will be in pain after the initial anesthetic wears off. Ask about the safest pain medication available for breastfeeding.
  6. Ask for your partner, friend, or doula to stay with you in the room to help you lift your baby, change positions in bed, change the baby’s diapers, and help you get out of bed.


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