Civil Engineering Project Topics

Access to Improved Water Supply for Domestic Use in Ootunja Ikole Local Government, Ekiti State

Access to Improved Water Supply for Domestic Use in Ootunja Ikole Local Government, Ekiti State

Chapter Two Literature Review Summary

Water is needed for the maintenance of health. Its importance is not only related to the quantity, but also the quality. Access to water in the required quantity is needed to achieve good personal and domestic hygiene practice Huttly et al (1997), while good quality water ensures that ingested water does not constitute a health hazard, even in a life time of consumption Ezzati et al (2003). It is however estimated that as much as 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water UNICEF 2000, while the drinking of contaminated water is responsible for 88% of the over four billion cases of diarrhoeal diseases that occur in the world every year, and the 1.8 million deaths that result from them. It is also indirectly responsible for the 50% of childhood malnutrition that is linked to diarrhoral diseases, and the 860, 000 deaths that result from them each year Prüss-Üstün et al (2008).


The United Nations Millennium Declaration confirmed the central role of water in sustainable development and the major contribution that expanded access to safe water for domestic use World Health Organization (WHO) 2004. Water infrastructure stands out of all infrastructures (Physical and Social) as critical to the attainment of the MDGs. This is because beside goal number 7 and target 10 which are specifically water based, issues addressed by goals 1-7, in general, directly or indirectly relate to water availability”. Therefore, meeting the water needs of Nigerians would be scores of ladder closer to attaining the overall MDGs. According to the African Water Development Report (AWDR 2006), in Africa, poor access to water and the attendant water scarcity affect women and girls disproportionately, the situation is worse in rural areas due to institutional and cultural barriers, including those of disparities in rights, decision-making power, tasks and responsibilities over water for productive and domestic activities. Infectious diarrhea is mainly responsible for the burden caused by water-borne and water- washed diseases. From the health perspective, improving access to safe water supply is a preventive intervention, whose main outcome is a reduction in the number of episodes of diarrhea and accordingly a proportionate reduction in the number of deaths. Consequently, water constitutes one of the primary drives of public health.

Water Source is potential raw water, i.e, it is natural fresh water that could be abstracted and processed for domestic purposes. The chemical composition of natural fresh water is the end result of rainwater that has fallen on to the land and interacted with the soil, the material in or on the soil, and rocks as it moves down rivers, or into lakes, or percolates underground. Its overall quality is further modified by run-off from various land uses (non-point or diffuse sources) and by discharges (point source). The quality is modified further by biological activity, wind-blown material and evaporation. DWSNZ (2015) the sources of water is basically two namely surface and underground source of water

  • Surface water

Surface freshwaters (rivers, streams, lakes and impoundments) comprise those natural waters that are open to the atmosphere and contain only relatively small quantities of dissolved materials; generally much less than 1000 mg/L (Harding et al 2004).

The convenience of having readily available and accessible sources of water rapidly renewed by rainfall is offset somewhat by the susceptibility of surface waters to pollution from a variety of diffuse and point sources. Point sources are clearly identifiable, have specific locations, and are typically pipes and drains discharging wastes (Davies-Colley and Wilcock 2004).

In most catchments used for water supply, pollution will be from diffuse sources, arising from land-use activities (urban and rural) that are dispersed across a catchment (Novotny 2003). Diffuse sources include surface runoff, as well as subsurface drainage, resulting from activities on land. The main categories of diffuse pollutants are sediment, nutrients and pathogenic micro-organisms. Other categories of diffuse pollutants are heavy metals (principally from urban land) and pesticides (mainly from agriculture and horticulture). Water UK (2012) summarizes helpful ideas for catchment protection.

A summary of human activities that impinge on the suitability of freshwaters for potable water is given in Table 2.4 Note that birds may be a significant source of faecal pollution in surface waters as indicated by standard faecal indicators (eg, E. coli), and shed pathogens (eg, Giardia cysts, Salmonellae and Campylobacter) (McBride et al 2002).

Chapter Five Summary

Based on the research work, the following conclusions are made: All samples meet the meet the required drinking standard values except for sample A in which the Iron, Nitrate and Manganese content of the chemical parameters are above the required values. Sample A also did not meet the drinking water standard for most of the physical parameters such as odour and taste and colour, odour and taste was present was present while the colour of the water brownish. Also all the water sample did not meet the micro-biological

W.H.O standard. The water samples were all contaminated with Aerobic mesophilic organism and coli form organism, Laboratory results shows that sample A,B,D aerobic mesophilic organism were too numerous to count.

The use of plastic container which is bucket and Jeri cans which reduces the heavy load and contamination are the major collection water materials.

There is a positive relationship between collection time, distance, quantity and quality of water from sources domestic use for individual household when compared with the

W.H.O standard of 60L/cap/day and water sources distances on average is between 200- 250metres.


  • Addiscott T.M and Benjamin N, (2004). Nitrate and human health. Soil Use and Management 20: 98–104.
  • Addisie M. (2012),Assessment of drinking water quality and determinants of household- potable water consumption in Simada district, Ethiopia.
  • Admasu M., Kumie A. and Fentahun M. (2003), Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North Gondar, Ethiopia, Ethiopian. J. Health Dev. (3):221-229.
  • African Development Fund (ADF) (2005), Ethiopian rural water supply and sanitation appraisal report. Infrastructure department north, east and south Onin Agriculture and Rural Development.Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA. Dietrich A.M
  • AWWA. (1990), Water Quality and Treatment (4th edition). Published for American Water Works Association by McGraw-Hill Inc.
  • AWWA. (2004), Problem Organisms in Water: Identification and treatment – manual of water supply practices. AWWA Manual M7. Denver CO: American Water Works Association.
  • AWWA. (2014), Groundwater: Manual M21 (4th edition). Denver CO: American Water Works Association. Cat No. 30021-4E, 296 pp.
  • Clasen T, Roberts I, Rabie T, Schmidt W, Cairncross S.(2006), Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea.Cochrane Database System CD004794.
  • Demeke A. (2009), Determinants of household participation in water resource management; Acheferworeda, Amhara region, Ethiopia.
  • Ezzati M, Hoorn SV, Rodgers A, Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Murray C.J. (2003), Estimates of global and regional potential health gains from reducing multiple major risk factors;362:271–280.