Public Health Project Topics

Addressing Contemporary Health Challenges of the Elderly Through Community-based Sports in Warri Metropolis.

Addressing Contemporary Health Challenges of the Elderly Through Community-based Sports in Warri Metropolis.

Addressing Contemporary Health Challenges of the Elderly Through Community-based Sports in Warri Metropolis.


Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study were to:

  1. Explore the effectiveness of community-based sports programs in improving the physical health and well-being of the elderly population in Warri Metropolis.
  2. Investigate the impact of participation in community-based sports on social integration and mental well-being among elderly individuals in Warri Metropolis.
  3. Assess the feasibility and sustainability of implementing community-based sports initiatives as a means of addressing the health challenges of the elderly in Warri Metropolis.



Conceptual Review

Aging and Health Challenges

Ageing is a complex biological process characterized by a gradual decline in physiological functions and an increased susceptibility to various health challenges (Sinding et al., 2020). As individuals age, they experience changes in organ systems, including reductions in muscle mass, bone density, and sensory functions, which can contribute to functional limitations and disability (Balota et al., 2020). Moreover, ageing is often associated with the development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease (McNicoll, 2020). These health challenges not only diminish the quality of life for elderly individuals but also pose significant burdens on healthcare systems and society as a whole (Bassuk et al., 2023).

One of the most prevalent health concerns among the elderly population is cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (McKhann et al., 2021). With advancing age, individuals may experience impairments in memory, executive function, and attention, affecting their ability to perform daily activities independently (Harada et al., 2023). Alzheimer’s disease, in particular, represents a major public health challenge, characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline (Das et al., 2022). The prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease is expected to rise significantly in the coming decades, placing a growing burden on healthcare systems and caregivers (Mayeux & Stern, 2022).

In addition to cognitive decline, elderly individuals are also at increased risk of sensory impairments, including vision and hearing loss (Salvi et al., 2020). Age-related changes in the eye, such as cataracts, macular degeneration, and glaucoma, can lead to visual impairment and blindness (Resnikoff et al., 2018). Similarly, presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is a common condition affecting the elderly population, which can have profound effects on communication, social interaction, and overall well-being (Khullar & Babbar, 2021).

Furthermore, musculoskeletal conditions such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are prevalent among elderly individuals, leading to pain, reduced mobility, and increased risk of falls and fractures (Wickremaratchi & Llewelyn, 2020). These conditions can significantly impact the independence and quality of life of elderly individuals, necessitating comprehensive management strategies that address both physical and psychosocial aspects of care (Carpenter et al., 2020).

Psychosocial factors also play a crucial role in shaping the health and well-being of the elderly population. Social isolation, loneliness, and depression are common among elderly individuals, particularly those living alone or in institutional settings (Nandi et al., 2020). Lack of social support networks and meaningful social engagement can exacerbate existing health conditions and increase the risk of mortality (Toffanello et al., 2021). Therefore, interventions aimed at promoting healthy ageing must consider the importance of fostering social connections and community participation among elderly individuals (Rowe & Kahn, 2019).





This chapter outlines the methodology employed in conducting the research, which aims to investigate the impact of employee training programs on organizational performance (Saunders et al., 2019). The methodology encompasses the research design, population of the study, sampling technique and sample size determination, sources and methods of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical considerations.

Research Design

The research adopts a quantitative survey research design to collect data from employees across various departments within the organization (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). This design was chosen for its ability to gather structured data efficiently and analyze relationships between variables. The use of a survey approach facilitates the collection of large-scale data, enabling comprehensive analysis and generalization of findings to the broader organizational context.

Population of the Study

The target population comprises all employees working in the organization, totalling 171 individuals (Bell et al., 2019). This population was selected based on its representation of the workforce directly impacted by the employee training programs under investigation. Including all employees ensures that diverse perspectives are captured, enhancing the validity and reliability of the study’s findings.



Data Presentation



Summary of Findings

The findings from the research study on community-based sports programs for the elderly in Warri Metropolis offer valuable insights into various aspects of such initiatives, shedding light on their effectiveness, challenges, and potential impact on the well-being of elderly individuals in the community.

One of the key findings of the study, as indicated by Tables 4.7 to 4.10, is the positive association between participation in community-based sports programs and improvements in physical health, mental well-being, and social integration among the elderly population. Specifically, a significant majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that engagement in these programs had positively impacted their physical health, overall well-being, social interactions, and mental health. These findings underscore the importance of community-based sports activities as effective interventions for promoting active ageing and enhancing the quality of life for elderly individuals.

Moreover, Tables 4.15 to 4.17 highlight several barriers and challenges faced in the implementation and sustainability of community-based sports initiatives for the elderly. Lack of funding/resources, limited participation and engagement from the elderly population, and insufficient support from local authorities were identified as significant hurdles hindering the effectiveness and long-term viability of these programs. These findings emphasize the need for strategic planning, resource mobilization, and collaborative efforts between community organizations, local authorities, and other stakeholders to address these challenges and ensure the success of such initiatives.

Furthermore, the results from Table 4.18, which presents the outcomes of one-sample t-tests, provide additional insights into the perceived effectiveness and feasibility of community-based sports programs. While the mean scores indicate positive perceptions overall, further statistical analysis is required to determine the significance of these findings and assess the extent to which community-based sports initiatives contribute to the well-being of elderly individuals in Warri Metropolis.

Overall, the findings from the study underscore the potential of community-based sports programs as valuable interventions for promoting active ageing, improving physical and mental health outcomes, and fostering social integration among the elderly population in Warri Metropolis. However, they also highlight the importance of addressing various challenges and barriers to ensure the successful implementation and long-term sustainability of such initiatives. Moving forward, policymakers, community leaders, and healthcare professionals need to collaborate and develop comprehensive strategies aimed at overcoming these challenges and maximizing the benefits of community-based sports programs for the elderly. By doing so, we can create inclusive and supportive environments that enable elderly individuals to lead healthy, active, and fulfilling lives.


Based on the results of the hypotheses tested, it was concluded that participation in community-based sports programs had a significant positive association with improvements in physical health outcomes, social integration, and mental well-being among the elderly population in Warri Metropolis. Contrary to the initial hypotheses, engagement in these programs was not negatively associated with physical health outcomes, did lead to increased social integration and enhanced mental well-being, and depended significantly on factors such as community support, organizational capacity, and resource allocation for successful implementation and long-term sustainability. These findings highlighted the importance of community-based sports initiatives as effective interventions for promoting active ageing and improving the overall well-being of elderly individuals in the community. Moving forward, policymakers, community leaders, and healthcare professionals should prioritize the development and support of such programs, while also addressing the identified barriers and challenges to ensure their continued success and impact on elderly individuals’ lives.


Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are suggested to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of community-based sports programs for the elderly population in Warri Metropolis:

  1. Increase Funding and Resources: Allocate sufficient funding and resources to support the implementation and maintenance of community-based sports initiatives. This includes securing financial support from government agencies, private donors, and community organizations to ensure adequate facilities, equipment, and staffing.
  2. Promote Awareness and Outreach: Launch comprehensive awareness campaigns to inform elderly individuals about the benefits of participating in community-based sports programs. Utilize various channels such as social media, community events, and healthcare facilities to reach a wider audience and encourage participation.
  3. Tailor Programs to Diverse Needs: Design programs that cater to the diverse needs and preferences of elderly individuals, considering factors such as physical abilities, interests, and cultural backgrounds. Offer a variety of activities, including low-impact exercises, recreational sports, and social gatherings, to accommodate different preferences.
  4. Foster Community Engagement: Strengthen partnerships with local authorities, community leaders, and healthcare providers to foster greater community engagement and support for sports programs. Collaborate on promotional efforts, volunteer recruitment, and outreach activities to enhance program visibility and participation.
  5. Provide Training and Support: Offer training and support to program coordinators, volunteers, and staff members to ensure they have the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively manage and facilitate sports activities for the elderly. Provide resources such as training workshops, educational materials, and mentorship programs to enhance their capabilities.
  6. Address Barriers to Participation: Identify and address barriers that may prevent elderly individuals from participating in sports programs, such as transportation issues, financial constraints, or health concerns. Implement solutions such as providing transportation services, offering financial assistance, or modifying activities to accommodate specific needs.
  7. Implement Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish a system for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of community-based sports programs regularly. Collect data on participation rates, health outcomes, and participant feedback to assess program impact and identify areas for improvement.
  8. Foster Long-Term Sustainability: Develop strategies to ensure the long-term sustainability of community-based sports initiatives, including establishing partnerships with local businesses, securing multi-year funding commitments, and building a strong volunteer base. Create contingency plans to address potential challenges and setbacks, ensuring continuity of services for elderly individuals in the community.


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