Health Education Project Topics

Addressing School Children Health Challenges (Communicable Diseases) in Delta State Through Health Education and Promotion

Addressing School Children Health Challenges (Communicable Diseases) in Delta State Through Health Education and Promotion

Addressing School Children Health Challenges (Communicable Diseases) in Delta State Through Health Education and Promotion


Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are as follows:

  1. To assess the current state of health education and promotion programs in schools in Delta State, Nigeria.
  2. To identify the most prevalent communicable diseases affecting school children in Delta State.
  3. To propose effective strategies for enhancing health education and promotion programs to address these health challenges.



Conceptual Review

School Children’s Health Challenges

In Delta State, Nigeria, school children face a myriad of health challenges that have a significant impact on their overall well-being (Igbokwe et al., 2020). These challenges encompass a broad spectrum, ranging from physical ailments to mental health issues, all of which are vital components of their holistic development (McLeroy et al., 2018).

One of the most pressing health challenges for school children in Delta State is the prevalence of communicable diseases (Collignon & Carnie, 2022). These diseases are a constant threat, given the densely populated nature of school environments, making children more vulnerable to infections (McLeroy et al., 2018). The consequences of these diseases are profound, leading to high rates of absenteeism and decreased academic performance among students. In severe cases, they can even result in fatalities, as indicated by Collignon and Carnie (2022). Thus, the burden of communicable diseases affects not only the physical health but also the educational progress of school children (Igbokwe et al., 2020).

Moreover, these health challenges extend beyond physical well-being to impact the mental health of school children (Leung et al., 2021). The fear of disease transmission, the potential consequences on their health, and the stress associated with these concerns can lead to increased anxiety and psychological distress (Igbokwe et al., 2020). This, in turn, affects their overall well-being and can hinder their ability to fully engage in the learning process, as highlighted by McLeroy et al. (2018).

Additionally, as emphasized by Bieri et al. (2021), the prevalence of certain diseases, such as worm infections, can lead to long-term health issues, affecting students’ growth and development. These health challenges have far-reaching implications, potentially resulting in developmental setbacks that may have lasting consequences for the affected children (Igbokwe et al., 2020).

In summary, the health challenges faced by school children in Delta State, Nigeria, are multifaceted, encompassing communicable diseases that affect their physical health, as well as mental health issues resulting from the fear and stress associated with these challenges. These issues not only impact their immediate health but also have the potential to hinder their holistic development, including their educational progress and prospects (McLeroy et al., 2018).

Communicable Diseases

Communicable diseases, as referenced in Collignon and Carnie (2022), constitute a significant health challenge among school children in Delta State, Nigeria. These diseases are characterized by their ability to spread from one person to another, particularly in densely populated areas like schools (McLeroy et al., 2018). Their prevalence poses a serious threat to the health and well-being of students, with far-reaching consequences.

The school environment, as highlighted by McLeroy et al. (2018), serves as an ideal breeding ground for the transmission of communicable diseases. The close interaction among students, often in confined spaces, increases the risk of infection. Common diseases, such as respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illnesses, can quickly spread from one student to another, leading to outbreaks and high rates of absenteeism (Collignon & Carnie, 2022).

In addition to the immediate health implications, communicable diseases can significantly impact the academic performance of students. As indicated by Collignon and Carnie (2022), these diseases result in frequent absences from school, which disrupt the learning process and hinder educational progress (McLeroy et al., 2018). This not only affects the individual student but can also strain the educational system as a whole.

Moreover, some communicable diseases, as cited by Collignon and Carnie (2022), can have severe consequences, including fatalities. The lack of early intervention and prevention measures, as emphasized by McLeroy et al. (2018), exacerbates the risk to students’ lives and places a significant burden on the healthcare system. This not only threatens the lives of school children but also the overall public health of Delta State, as highlighted by Igbokwe et al. (2020).

In summary, communicable diseases are a formidable health challenge faced by schoolchildren in Delta State. These diseases thrive in the school environment, leading to high rates of absenteeism, decreased academic performance, and, in severe cases, fatalities. Addressing this issue is not only essential for the immediate well-being of students but also for the broader public health of the region (McLeroy et al., 2018).





This chapter outlines the methodology employed in conducting the research, encompassing the research design, population of the study, sampling technique and sample size, sources and methods of data collection, data analysis techniques, validity and reliability testing, and ethical considerations.

Research Design

For this study, a quantitative research design was adopted, based on several justifications. A quantitative approach is well-suited to address the research questions and objectives efficiently and effectively. This design involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data, providing a structured and systematic means to investigate the prevalence and impact of health challenges on school children in Delta State, Nigeria.

Firstly, a quantitative research design is advantageous for this study due to its ability to provide precise and quantifiable data on a large scale. The study aims to gather information from a substantial number of respondents, and quantitative methods are ideal for collecting data from a sizeable sample, as recommended by Anderson, Fontinha, and Robson (2020). Delta State’s diverse population and the prevalence of health challenges among school children make it essential to have a comprehensive dataset. A quantitative approach allows for the measurement of variables and statistical analysis that can yield robust findings, ensuring the research outcomes are both reliable and generalizable to the broader population.

Secondly, a quantitative research design is well-suited for assessing the prevalence and impact of health challenges, as it allows for the collection of objective and standardized data. The study aims to quantify the extent of health challenges, students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and the effectiveness of health education and promotion programs. Quantitative research methods are particularly effective in providing empirical evidence and statistical relationships between variables, as recommended by Creswell and Creswell (2018). This approach ensures that the study’s findings are based on concrete data, which is essential when addressing complex health issues that affect school children in Delta State.



Data Presentation



Summary of Findings

The study aimed to investigate the state of health education and promotion programs in schools in Delta State, Nigeria, focusing on prevalent communicable diseases, effective strategies for enhancing health education, and public awareness campaigns. The research was conducted among school children to understand their perspectives on these crucial health-related issues. Here, we present a comprehensive summary of the findings across different areas explored in this study.

The study found that schoolchildren in Delta State have a generally positive perception of health education programs in their schools. A significant proportion of respondents strongly agreed (30.8%) with the effectiveness of these programs in increasing their awareness of disease prevention methods. An additional 39.4% agreed with this statement. This positive perception of health education programs highlights the potential for these programs to impact students positively by enhancing their awareness of health-related matters.

The positive outlook continues in the realm of health-related behaviours. A considerable number of respondents strongly agreed (32.7%) that these programs have positively influenced their health-related behaviours, with 39.4% agreeing. This finding underscores the vital role of health education programs in shaping students’ behaviours and fostering health-conscious choices.


Based on the findings of this study, here are five recommendations:

  1. Enhance Health Education Programs: The study highlights the positive attitudes of school children toward health education programs. It is recommended that educational authorities in Delta State should continue to enhance these programs by incorporating innovative teaching methods, interactive materials, and practical experiences to ensure that students receive a comprehensive education on health and hygiene.
  2. Introduce Environmental Education: Given the importance of public awareness campaigns and the positive attitudes of students toward circular economy practices, integrating environmental education into the curriculum is advisable. This can include teaching students about sustainable practices, waste reduction, and the importance of conservation.
  3. Strengthen Collaborations: Collaboration between schools, health institutions, and local communities can bolster the impact of health education and promotion programs. Schools should consider forming partnerships with local health organizations, ensuring students have access to up-to-date information and resources related to health and hygiene.
  4. Regular Health Check-ups: To address the issue of communicable diseases and promote early detection, regular health check-ups in schools should be implemented. This will not only help in identifying health issues promptly but also serve as an educational opportunity for students to understand the importance of health assessments.
  5. Sustainability Initiatives: The study reveals a positive inclination toward circular economy practices. Schools can take the lead in establishing sustainability initiatives, such as recycling programs, tree planting campaigns, or community clean-up events. These initiatives can provide students with hands-on experiences and reinforce their commitment to environmental conservation.

Contribution to Knowledge

This study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. Firstly, it sheds light on the state of health education and promotion programs in schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The findings indicate a positive outlook among school children, demonstrating the effectiveness of these programs in raising awareness about various health-related aspects. This insight is valuable for educational authorities and policymakers in Delta State as it underscores the importance of continued investment in health education initiatives. By identifying the existing strengths and weaknesses, decision-makers can further tailor these programs to address the specific needs and preferences of school children, ultimately leading to improved health outcomes among the youth population.

Secondly, this study addresses a notable gap in the literature by exploring the attitudes and perceptions of school children toward circular economy practices. With the global shift toward sustainability and environmental conservation, understanding the willingness of young individuals to engage in eco-friendly behaviours is crucial. The study’s findings reveal a favourable inclination among students, indicating their receptiveness to circular economy concepts. This contributes to the broader discourse on environmental education and highlights the potential for schools to play a pivotal role in nurturing environmentally responsible citizens. The insights from this research can serve as a foundation for designing educational strategies that encourage sustainable practices and equip future generations with the knowledge and motivation to contribute to a more environmentally conscious society.


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