Religious Studies Project Topics

An Analysis of the Concept and Practice of Transformational Leadership in ECWA

An Analysis of the Concept and Practice of Transformational Leadership in ECWA

An Analysis of the Concept and Practice of Transformational Leadership in ECWA

Chapter One


The main objective of this study is to analyze the concept and practice of transformational leadership in ECWA.

The following are the specific objectives of the study:

  1. To investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and general performance of church officers.
  2. To investigate the extent to which a leader’s intervention on situations affects overall performance of church members.
  3. To determine the elements of transformational leadership experienced at ECWA.
  4. To establish the factors that led to the adoption transformative leadership at ECWA.



Transformational leadership involves an exchange process that results in follower compliance with leader request but not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment to task objective. The leader focuses on having internal actors perform the tasks required for the organization to reach its desired goals (Boehnke et al, 2003).

Transformational leadership can be contrasted with transactional leadership. The latter implies leadership based on an exchange process wherein autonomous agents may benefit, which in turn implies reciprocity (Simola et al., 2012). Bass (1990) indicates that transactional leadership can be characterized by several elements not necessarily mutually excluding. The first dimension is that of contingent rewards or the recognition of achievement by rewarding efforts and good performance. The second is active management by exception which is directed at managing the process. Leaders monitor the lack of compliance with established rules and standards, and when required undertake corrective measures. Transactional leadership can also focus on passive management by exception. In the latter, leaders are meant to intervene only in cases in which set objectives are not achieved. The last characteristic of transactional leadership is laissezfaire in which leaders avoid making decision and those involved in the process relinquish all responsibilities.


Transformational leadership is a value driven type of leadership that speaks to enduring human capacity for excellence and pride accomplishment. Studies have shown that transformational leadership helps increase production but production greatly increases when another form of leadership is applied. However the negative impacts seem to outweigh the positive effects that transformational leadership produces.  For transformational leadership to work effectively, trust has to be present so as to induce voluntary commitment, production and performance.

Burns (1978) points out that transformational leadership should empower leaders not only to take the initiative to engage with followers but also engage creatively in a fashion that recognizes and responds to the material wants of potential followers.

This study is based on transformational theories as the lead theory in an attempt to explain the impact of transformational leadership on employee productivity and performance, together with the Maslow’s basic needs theory and path goal theory as complimentary theories According to transformational theory, leadership is based on a system of rewards and punishments. The theory assumes that workers are motivated by rewards and punishments. That rewards and punishments are contingent upon the performance of followers. Managers and subordinates have an exchange type of relationship. Subordinates need to be carefully monitored so as to ensure that expectations are met.

According to the basic needs theory, there are certain minimum requirements that are essential for one to be said to have a decent living. These are called physiological needs and they include food, shelter, health and clothing. These are primary needs that have to be catered for before other needs like security, love affection and finally self-actualization are pursued. It is these basic needs that a leader needs to look into as incentives in order to derive motivation from an employee and hopefully increase their performance.

The path goal theory is complimentary to transformational theory in as far as this study is concerned as it describes the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving set goals by making their path clearer. The leaders do this by clarifying the path for their subordinates to know the way, by removing any roadblocks that hinder performance and finally by increasing their rewards when goals are achieved. This study therefore seeks to operate within the framework of transformational theories with path goal theory and Maslow’s basic needs theory as complimentary.

The Bass Transformational Leadership Theory is interested in the extent to which a leader influences followers. Followers go after a leader because of trust, honesty, and other qualities and the stronger these are, the greater loyalty they have for the leader. The leader transforms the followers because of her or his having these qualities. Not only is the leader a role model but she or he exhorts the following to challenging the existing order, the revolutionary being a stark example of this. While the leader may have democratic motives in mind, s/he can assume a Transaction Leadership style at the same time, directing the followers to do things.

The Bass Transformational Leadership Theory also assumes that the leader has decent set of ethics, but if the theory is applied in a situation where a leader does not, the results could be disastrous. Cults, such as the Branch Davidians, are prime examples of where the process of transformation of a group by a deluded leader can result in terrible consequences. One should not need to say anything about Hitler from Germany.





Ogula (2005) describes a research design as a plan, structure and strategy of investigation to obtain answers to research questions and control variance. Additionally, a study design is the plan of action the researcher adopts for answering the research questions and it sets up the framework for study or is the blueprint of the researcher (Kerlinger, 1973). This study is set to adopt a survey research design. This design as defined by Orodho (2003) is a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals. The main feature of survey research design is to describe specific characteristics of a large group of persons, objects or institutions, through questionnaires (Jaeger, 1988).  Besides, the design used because of its descriptive nature in order to assist the researcher in collecting data from members of the sample for the purpose of estimating the population parameters.


A sample is a smaller group or sub-group obtained from the accessible population (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This subgroup is carefully selected so as to be representative of the whole population with the relevant characteristics. Each member or case in the sample is referred to as subject, respondent or interviewees. Sampling is a procedure, process or technique of choosing a sub-group from a population to participate in the study (Ogula, 2005). It is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals selected represent the large group from which they were selected. The study will apply random sampling procedures to obtain the respondents for questionnaires. The sample frame of the study will include a representative sample of the members, officers and pastors of ECWA, Kaduna. At least 30% of the total population is representative (Borg and Gall, 2003). Thus, 60 of the accessible population will be enough for the sample size.


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  • Jephttah, G. S. (2011). CAN; Leadership and its Responsibility, Challenge for the Church. Jos: ECWA Publications.
  • Josiah, M. (2010). A Biblical Investigation into the Concept of Jesus’ Good Shepherd in John 10:11 and its Implication on Pastoral Work in Zonkwa DCC. Igbaja: ECWA Publications.
  • Justine, S.G. (2015). An Interview on the 24-9-2015 at Sabon Tasha: Kasuwan Magani DCC.
  • Kore, D. (2006). Truth for Healthy Churches. Buruku: African Christian Text Books.
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