Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution Project Topics

An Analysis of the Impact of Women’s Association on Dispute Management in Benue State

An Analysis of the Impact of Women's Association on Dispute Management in Benue State

An Analysis of the Impact of Women’s Association on Dispute Management in Benue State

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to analyze the impact of women’s association on dispute management in Benue state.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Examine the causes and nature of conflict in Benue state.
  2. Examine the impact of the conflict in Benue state on women.
  3. Examine the extent of women association involvement and participation in the management of conflict in Benue state.
  4. Examine the significant role played by women association during conflict management in Benue state.



Theoretical review

In seeking to unravel the extent of women participation in conflict management and obtain a theoretical foundation for the research, a closer look at feminist scholarships was embarked upon. The reason being that feminist analysis of violent conflict management place gender and women at the heart of their analysis. In doing this, the Radical Feminist Theory also known as Patriarchy Theory and Social Feminist Theory was adopted to give a theoretical foundation to the research.

The Radical Feminist Theory, broadly views that patriarchy is the main obstacle through which men control and subjugate women‘s advancement. The Radical Feminist theory also regarded as Patriarchal theory seeks to overcome patriarchal norms and structures which are instruments society use to subjugate and discriminate. Early publications from Christine de Pizan on The Book of the City of Ladies, 1405 and Mary Wollstonecraft book on A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in1792 stood as some early responses of women towards the subjugation, inequality and open confrontation against a patriarchal order, Sultana et al. (2011) and Napikoski (2017).

The philosophies of radical feminism in the USA grew from a radical protest by women beginning from the liberation movements and influence of civil rights movements in the 1960s notably making this period the feminism second wave. Some early pioneers of this wave of radical feminism include activist such as Shulamith Firestone, Kathie Sarachld and Judith Brown, etc., Linden-Ward and Hurd (1999). Many local women’s organizations like the UCLA Women’s Liberation Front (WLF) offered diplomatic statements of radical feminism’s ideologies. UCLA’s WLF co-founder Devra Weber recalls, the radical feminists were opposed to patriarchy, but not capitalism.

The Socialist Feminist theory which grew in the 1960s from the same foundation of discrimination against women marginalisation as other feminist theories which seek and focuses on claiming a greater collective role for women globally. A 1972 publication by the Hyde Park chapter of the Chicago Women’s Liberation Union, ―Socialist Feminism: A Strategy for the Women’s Movement”, is possibly the first to use the socialist feminism term. Some early feminist authors include (Zillah, 1978) essay collections of Capitalist Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist

Feminism in Sociology and Rhonda F. Levine anthology, Enriching the Sociological Imagination: How Radical Sociology Changed the Discipline, cites Eisenstein’s article as a “superb discussion of the socialist-feminist position”,.

The Socialist feminist theory believes that until the Radical Feminist theory (Patriarchy theory) is joined with the Marxist Feminist theory (Capitalism theory), the feminist revolution would continue in a roller-coaster and end unprofitably. The socialist feminist theory is a fusion of both radical feminist theory and Marxist Feminist theory. It tries to defeat the major claim of radical feminism’s stronghold that patriarchy (male dominance) is the sole and universal channel of the oppression of women while rejecting Marxism’s claim that class and class struggle (capitalism) alone is the basic determining factors in understanding the present subjugation of women. The Socialist feminist claims class and patriarchy mutually strengthen women oppressions, Mitchell (1984); Briskin (1992) and Strobe and Davenport (1999).

The socialist Feminist points to reasons that, women oppression is witnessed in almost all known societies even with different historical realities such as colonialism, racism, imperialism, sexual segregation, etc and that the panorama of these oppressions differs in regards to the divergent economic realities women find themselves in. Socialist feminists suggest that capitalism and patriarchy form one system that oppresses women in our society, Hochschild (2003).

The Socialist feminist recognizes how wrong it is to assume that anyone form of oppression is a more important form of oppression. Instead, they recognize that all oppression based on sex/gender, class, race, education, politics, sexual orientation, religion, economic empowerment, etc, are linked in the oppression. To effectively challenge and overcome all oppression at the same time is to overcome one, thus they challenge various marginalisation issues, included is conflict management, Hochschild (2003).

Socialist feminists ask for women economic and socio-cultural relevance as people who give birth, socialize children and provide emotional labor for society, responsibilities that cannot be swept under the carpet as these functions are the core fabrics that create an atmosphere conducive for relaxation, recreation and development for men from the stress of work and the civic arena. This feminist believes that all these important labour is overlooked, degraded and much concern is not given to reality which Hochschild (2003) regards as “second shift.”

As activists in the United States of America, early socialist feminists organized themselves into women‘s unions. The largest of these unions was the Chicago Women‘s Liberation Union carrying out a wide network of projects including projects on affordable childcare, reproductive rights and healthcare for women, comparable worth. Other socialist feminists groups were the Radical Women, the Freedom Socialist Party and Big Flame in the United States and the United Kingdom.

Feminist radicals and socialist have continued to play active and impactful key roles in general society, the labour movement, movement for reproductive rights, and the movement to build gender studies and women service and contributions in conflict management, peacebuilding, and sustainable national development.

The Radical and Socialist feminist theories are solid foundations to question issues that pertain to gender subjugation and the appreciation attempt of women participation in conflict management at a multi-dimensional level.

In relation, the radical feminist theory appears to be predominant in African societies like Benue state were women potentials and roles in conflict management and other systems are not maximized due to patriarchal structures prevalent in the community.




Research design

The study will employ a survey method. Where information will be collected from selected respondents on the impact of women’s association on dispute management in Benue state.

Target population

The study population constitute women in “women associations” in Benue state. The target population will be one hundred and fifty (150) persons. The criterion for selection will be women who reside in Benue state while the criteria for exclusion will be those who do not reside in Benue state

Sampling technique

The Purposive and Snowball Sampling methods will be adopted in the research. The purposive sampling method will be used to enable the researcher hand pick sample elements while the snowball sampling technique will be used to cut across the elements to reach target populace. Sample size of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents who are aged 18 years and above representing the sample population will be selected to form the framework. A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) will be composed of ten (10) members of Benue state.


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