An Assessment of Environmental Sanitation in the Control of Mosquito Breeding Site in Jos North
Objectives of the study
The general objective is to carry out an assessment of environmental sanitation in the control of mosquito breeding site in Jos North. The specific objectives are:
- To ascertain if inhabitants of Jos North LGA know the implications of indiscriminate waste disposal in their environment.
- To find out the level of efficiency in the control and management of waste in Jos North LGA.
- To know the rate of malaria infection among inhabitants of Jos North LGA.
- To investigate if inhabitants of Jos North LGA adopt an effective environmental sanitation.
- To examine the effect of environmental sanitation on the spread of malaria among inhabitants of Jos North LGA.
Concept of Environmental Sanitation
Environmental sanitation is an often-misconstrued subject matter. It is usually understood as an exercise rather than a practice (Daramola, 2016). According to Park (2011) inadequate environmental sanitation has been recognized as a public health hazard worldwide. In some Nigerian cities, living with waste as part of the natural environment has become a way of life. In its modern concept, the environment includes not only water, air, and soil but also the social and economic conditions under which we live.
Agbaje (2006) defined environmental sanitation as the science of formulation and ensuring for effective implementation of measures designed to facilitate the promotion of hygiene and prevention of diseases and hygienic disposal of waste materials. Sanitation in the present study refers to the science and act of promoting hygiene, prevention of diseases and waste management so that wastes do not constitute a hazard to man and other creatures in an environment. It is evident that the provision of adequate environmental sanitation facilities and services could at best be referred to as a means to an end. The attitude and behavioral practices of the stakeholders determine the end (Bello, 2007). Proper sanitation is a key development intervention as having access to it increases health, well-being and economic productivity (WHO, 2004).
The ultimate goal of environmental sanitation; according to WHO (2013) is to ensure that measures are designed for the prevention of diseases and promotion of health. According to UNICEF (1998) program guideline, sanitation reduces environmental health risks through appropriate measures for safe disposal of human excreta, vector control; personal, food and environmental hygiene. Allen, et al. (2017) conceptualized sanitation as the maintenance or improvement of sanitary conditions to promote hygiene and to prevent diseases. According to Robinson and Davidson (2006), sanitation refers to measures taken to promote and to preserve public health. Sanitation is a way of life, quality of living expressed in a clean home, clean businesssurroundings, clean neighborhood, clean environment, and clean community (Park 2007). In this connection, Water Aid Nigeria is providing potable water supply and creating access to adequate sanitation in urban and rural communities in line with the millennium development goal of poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Access to sanitation refers to the population with adequate means of sanitation facilities and services for safe excreta and other waste disposals to prevent human contact with excreta and other infectious wastes. Indicators of these include a number of the latrine, refuse and sewage systems especially the number of people that can access safe excreta disposal facilities. Water supply and Collaborative Council (2000) conceptualized sanitation facilities as hardware as for evacuation of excreta, refuse, and wastewater. Examples are household and communal latrines. According to Lucas and Gilles (2006), poor sanitation gives rise to a number of health consequences. UN (1990) stated that lack of excreta disposal; improper drainage and inadequate hygiene in a community contribute to morbidity and mortality. Water Aid Nigeria adopted a new approach to sanitation known as community-led total sanitation. community-led total sanitation (CLTS) as a concept is behavior centered; which can be inculcated in people all over the World. According to Orji (2007), CLTS refers to a process whereby a community is empowered to identify their health risk practices such as indiscriminate defecation and jointly discussed to the people‘s shame and disgust that they voluntarily take collective decision to end indiscriminate defecation. He maintained that when a community participates in a program such as this; such community makes an informed choice(s) by adopting from among sanitation technology option(s) in respect of latrine, refuse collection/storage and sewage systems in the conveyance of refuse and wastewater to end disposal sites. Orji further stated that CLTS in co-operate child stool management. Management of child stool refers to a process whereby older child, caregiver or parent park child‘s feces and logged into a latrine and immediately wash the child and their hands with water and soap or with water and ash to prevent faeco-oral route of disease transmission.
An improved environmental sanitation facility is one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved environmental sanitation facilities are used by less than two-thirds of the world population. The global picture masks great disparities between regions. Virtually the entire population of the developed regions uses improved environmental sanitation facilities, but in developing regions only around half the population uses improved environmental sanitation facilities (WHO, 2011). Moreover, WHO, (2011) reported that among the 2.6 billion people in the world who do not use improved sanitation facilities, by far the greatest number are in Southern Asia, but there are also large numbers in Eastern Asia and SubSaharan Africa, in which Nigeria is one of them.
An overview of Environmental Sanitation in Nigeria
Environmental sanitation conditions in many areas threaten to reverse the gains made in the environment over the last several decades‖ Every human should have a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature (Olawale & Olatunji, 2014). In a tragically degraded environment, human life is threatened. Most Nigeria cities are faced with problems of growth that results in environmental pollution which is an important challenge to society. Environmental sanitation declined in Nigeria as a result of poor managerial skills and many more which thus, deteriorate the maintenance of good sanitation‖. Poor sanitation and unhygienic behavior led to the launching of the ―war against indiscipline‖ by late Major General Tunde Idiagbon, who said that slums and ghettos were the incubators of epidemic diseases that pose a serious danger to human health World Health Organization, (2010). Environmental sanitation stresses the price of the development; in fact, widespread environmental damage is likely to hinder developmental efforts and worsen the plight of people living in acute poverty (WHO & UNICEF, 2009). The relationship of humans to the environment is reciprocal in such that the environment has a profound influence on humans and, at the same time, humans extensively alter the environment to suit their needs and desires. Some of these changes created new hazards. The humans‘ attitudes toward the environment are still negative and are often contrary to the concept of sustainable development, which recognizes that economic growth and environmental protection are inextricably linked and the quality of present and future life rests on meeting basic human needs without destroying the environment on which all life depends. Despite various programs by different tiers of governments to address the issue of environmental sanitation, many Nigerians still have negative attitudes toward environmental sanitation and do not value personal or environmental sanitation (WHO & UNICEF, 2009). A well-known fact to many United Nations specialized agencies such as the World Health Organization, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, and world bank is that the single most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and other third world countries is a poor standard of environmental sanitation.
A research design is the structure of research. It holds all the elements in a research project together. It shows how all the major parts of the research project work together to try to address the central research question Kombo and Tromp, (2016). A descriptive cross- sectional study design was used for the study.
Jos North is a Local Government Area in Plateau State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the city center of Jos. The postal code of the area is 930. It has an area of 291 km2 and a population of 429,300 at the 2006 census. The ethnic groups found in this area include: Afizere, Anaguta, Bache Irigwe and Berom. Most inhabitants of the areas are mainly commercial farmers, petty traders and civil servants.
Sources of Data
The data for this study were generated from two main sources; Primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources include questionnaire, interviews and observation. The secondary sources include journals, bulletins, textbooks and the internet.
Population and sampling of the study
A study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description (Prince, 2019). The population of this present covered residents in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau state, Nigeria. Also, the target population for this study were adults which are usually from 18 years and above by Nigerian standard. An observational checklist designed by Federal Ministry of Environment was also used to assess residential houses and their surroundings sampled for the study. Items assessed with the checklist were basically type of house, household size, window/door screening, outside surroundings and waste disposal methods.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Poor environmental sanitation practice has been strongly linked to high malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality rates especially in low and middle income countries. In Nigeria, malaria remains a major public health problem with higher endemicity in rural and semi-urban settings.
The Government should intensify the campaign against the mosquito borne diseases through different public sectors or advertisement in news papers or TV channels and should take proper action in regular cleaning of polluted water. The spraying of suitable chemical adulticide or larvicide as well as the introduction of biocontrol agents such as application of larvivorous fishes in the temporary or permanent water body can reduce the frequency and prevalence of mosquito borne diseases in this peri-urban area. Active participation of stakeholders, community volunteers and self-help group members are necessary to maximize community awareness and can improve the quality of life in this area.
Findings in the current study showed that most respondents recorded poor environmental sanitation practices. Hence, the government at all levels in conjunction with the local communities should provide basic sanitation facilities such as good channeling of drainage systems for proper disposal of wastewater and waste collection services for proper disposal of household generated solid wastes, etc. This is critical to the prevention and control of mosquitoes and malaria transmission. Agricultural activities such as the use of bamboo in the construction of yam barns and the planting of water-bearing crops that encourage the breeding of mosquitoes should be restricted to places outside residential areas. This would also minimize mosquito breeding and exposure to malaria transmission.
Policymakers in government and non-governmental organizations should redesign a plan of action to maintain the positive knowledge, attitude, and practice of environmental sanitation among households in Jos North.
Adequate interventions program by the ministry of health such as health education and inform of radio jingles programme should be provided for the maintenance and improvement of practice of environmental sanitation for households in Plateau state. iv. Government, Stake holders and non-governmental organizations should redesign a plan of action to sensitize the households about the importance of proper waste disposal so as to maintain their positive attitude in Jos North.
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