Criminology Project Topics

An Assessment of Poor Basic Amenities in Nigeria Correctional Centres: A Case Study of Kirikiri Prisons, Lagos State

An Assessment of Poor Basic Amenities in Nigeria Correctional Centres A Case Study of Kirikiri Prisons, Lagos State

An Assessment of Poor Basic Amenities in Nigeria Correctional Centres: A Case Study of Kirikiri Prisons, Lagos State

Chapter One

Aim and Objectives

This research aims to assess the state of basic amenities in Kirikiri Prisons, Lagos State, and, by extension, in Nigeria’s correctional centres. To achieve this aim, the study pursued the following specific objectives:

  1. To examine the availability and quality of clean water and sanitation facilities in Kirikiri Prisons.
  2. To evaluate the healthcare services and medical facilities provided to inmates in Kirikiri Prisons.
  3. To assess the educational and vocational training programs available for inmate rehabilitation in Kirikiri Prisons.



Conceptual Review

 Basic Amenities in Correctional Centres

Within the context of correctional facilities, basic amenities encompass essential services and conditions necessary for the humane treatment and rehabilitation of inmates (Garba, Iliya, & Anthony, 2021). Key basic amenities include clean water, sanitation, healthcare, and educational services, all of which are vital for the well-being and dignity of incarcerated individuals (Aborisade & Obileye, 2018).

Clean water, as one of the core basic amenities, ensures that inmates have access to safe and potable water for drinking and hygiene purposes (Nigerian Correctional Service: Statistic Summary, 2022). Adequate sanitation facilities, which include toilets and showers, are imperative to maintain hygiene and prevent the spread of diseases in a confined environment (Aborisade & Obileye, 2018).

Healthcare services are an essential component of basic amenities, ensuring that inmates receive necessary medical attention and treatment during their incarceration (Sabitu, Iliyasu, & Joshua, 2019). This includes routine medical care, emergency response, and access to medications.

Additionally, educational services play a crucial role in inmate rehabilitation and reformation. Inmates should have access to educational programs that allow them to acquire new skills and knowledge, promoting their successful reintegration into society upon release (Aborisade & Obileye, 2018).

The significance of these basic amenities extends beyond mere comfort; it is intrinsically tied to upholding human rights and promoting the overall well-being of incarcerated individuals (Aoko v Fagbemi, 2020). Denying inmates these amenities not only violates their fundamental rights but also undermines the correctional system’s core mission of rehabilitation and reformation. Ensuring the provision of these basic amenities is a moral and legal obligation that reflects a commitment to the dignity and rights of all individuals, regardless of their legal status (Criminal Release from Custody (Special Provisions) Act, 2004).

 Overcrowding in Correctional Centres

Overcrowding in correctional facilities is a pervasive issue characterized by the confinement of a larger number of inmates within a space designed for a lesser capacity (Owolabi, 2021). Measuring overcrowding often involves assessing the ratio of inmates to available physical space, such as the number of inmates per cell or dormitory (Nigerian Correctional Service: Statistic Summary, 2022).

The impact of overcrowding on inmates’ living conditions and rehabilitation efforts is profound (Omatseye v FRN, 2017). Inmates in overcrowded facilities often experience severe degradation in their quality of life. They are forced to endure cramped, unsanitary, and unhealthy conditions (Chukwudi, 2022). Overcrowding leads to increased stress and tension among inmates, as well as the potential for violence and conflicts (Owolabi, 2021).

Moreover, overcrowding has a direct and adverse effect on inmates’ access to basic amenities (Chukwudi, 2022). In facilities with limited space and resources, the provision of essential services, such as clean water, sanitation, healthcare, and educational programs, becomes compromised (Aborisade & Obileye, 2018). The competition for these resources can result in unequal access, with many inmates being deprived of their right to basic amenities (Idris v FRN, 2018).

The connection between overcrowding and limited access to basic amenities underscores the urgent need to address the issue of overcrowding in correctional centres (Criminal Release from Custody (Special Provisions) Act, 2004). Overcrowding not only contributes to inhumane living conditions but also undermines the correctional system’s primary goals of rehabilitation and reformation, further emphasizing the significance of this research (Fawehinmi v IGP, 2002).

 Inmate Rehabilitation and Reformation

The core goals of correctional systems, rehabilitation, and reformation, aim to transform inmates into law-abiding citizens upon their release (Chukwudi, 2022). Rehabilitation involves providing inmates with the necessary tools, skills, and support to address the factors that led to their criminal behaviour and reduce the likelihood of reoffending (Alemika & Chukwuma, 2022). Reformation focuses on instilling positive values and behaviours in inmates to facilitate their successful reintegration into society (Owolabi, 2021).

Basic amenities play a pivotal role in supporting rehabilitation programs within correctional facilities (Omatseye v FRN, 2017). Access to clean water, sanitation, healthcare, and educational services is fundamental in addressing the physical and mental health needs of inmates (Aborisade & Obileye, 2018). These services provide the necessary infrastructure for programs aimed at substance abuse treatment, mental health counselling, and educational and vocational training (Chukwudi, 2022).





This chapter introduces the research methodology (Robson, 2020) employed in the study, emphasizing the importance of a structured approach. The selected research design, data collection methods, and analytical tools are crucial components in ensuring the reliability and validity of the study (Eisenhardt, 2015).

 Research Design

In crafting the methodological framework for this study, a deliberate choice was made to employ a quantitative survey design, drawing inspiration from established methodologies (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). This methodological selection aligns seamlessly with the study’s objectives, emphasizing the need for a systematic and numerical exploration of conditions within Nigeria’s correctional centres (Newman & Benz, 2020).

The quantitative survey design is foundational to the research’s success, providing a structured and standardized approach to gathering data (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). This design choice allows for the systematic collection of numerical data, ensuring a comprehensive analysis of variables pertinent to the study’s focus. By opting for a quantitative survey, the research aims to quantify the multifaceted aspects of conditions within correctional centres, enabling a nuanced understanding of the challenges faced by inmates.

This methodological approach serves as a strategic roadmap for navigating the complexities of the correctional system. It is a deliberate choice, echoing the need for a rigorous and structured investigation into the conditions prevailing in Nigeria’s correctional centres. By systematically collecting numerical data, the study aims to contribute valuable insights to the existing body of knowledge, fostering a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities within the correctional system.

Target Population

The target population for this study encompasses a diverse group, including inmates, correctional staff, and administrative personnel within Nigeria’s correctional centres (Goddard & Melville, 2020). This strategic choice aligns with the study’s objectives, aiming to incorporate a broad range of perspectives and firsthand experiences, essential for a comprehensive understanding of the correctional system (Gray, 2018).

In selecting inmates, correctional staff, and administrative personnel as the target population, the study recognizes the importance of capturing insights from those directly involved in the correctional system (Goddard & Melville, 2020). In doing so, the research aims to shed light on the nuanced challenges faced by inmates and the operational dynamics from the viewpoint of correctional staff and administrative personnel. This holistic approach to the target population contributes to the richness and depth of the data collected, enhancing the study’s potential for generating meaningful findings.

The decision to include a diverse range of participants in the target population stems from a desire to ensure that the study’s insights are reflective of the complex realities within correctional centres (Gray, 2018). This inclusivity is vital for addressing the multifaceted nature of the challenges and opportunities present in Nigeria’s correctional system. As the study progresses, the perspectives and experiences of inmates, correctional staff, and administrative personnel will collectively contribute to a nuanced and holistic understanding of the correctional conditions under investigation.




This section delved into data presentation, analysis and interpretation of the items contained in the distributed questionnaire in this study. The data were analyzed and interpreted and appropriate statistical inferences were made based on the empirical analysis carried out.



Summary of Findings

The findings from the study shed light on the current state of Nigeria’s correctional centres, focusing on Kirikiri Prisons, and offer valuable insights into the perspectives of inmates, correctional staff, and administrative personnel. The investigation into basic amenities revealed a mixed sentiment among respondents. While a notable percentage of inmates acknowledged the provision of clean water, sanitation facilities, and healthcare services, a significant portion expressed concerns about overcrowding and the overall living conditions within the correctional centres.

Inmates generally recognized the importance of basic amenities in upholding human rights and promoting their well-being. However, the study uncovered challenges related to overcrowding, which significantly impacted the living conditions and rehabilitation efforts. The correlation between overcrowding and limited access to basic amenities emerged as a critical concern, emphasizing the intricate interplay between these factors within correctional facilities.

The research also delved into the crucial aspect of rehabilitation and reformation. Inmates expressed a positive perception of rehabilitation programs, indicating a belief in their effectiveness. The perceived access to rehabilitation services, including counselling and skill-building programs, highlighted the inmates’ recognition of the significance of such initiatives in the process of reintegrating into society successfully.

Furthermore, the study explored the human rights framework within correctional settings, emphasizing the need for a rights-based approach to correctional reform. The findings underscored the importance of aligning correctional practices with international and national legal frameworks governing human rights. Violations of human rights due to inadequate basic amenities were identified, emphasizing the urgency of addressing these issues to ensure the dignity and well-being of inmates.

In conclusion, the study provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges faced by Nigeria’s correctional system, particularly within Kirikiri Prisons. The findings underscore the need for holistic reforms that address overcrowding, improve basic amenities, and prioritize human rights to enhance the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. These insights are invaluable for policymakers, advocacy groups, and stakeholders working towards a more just and effective correctional system in Nigeria.


The hypotheses testing in this study aimed to assess the perceived availability and quality of essential amenities in Kirikiri Prisons, focusing on clean water and sanitation facilities, healthcare services, and educational programs. The findings reveal noteworthy insights into the perspectives of inmates, correctional staff, and administrative personnel.

Firstly, concerning the availability and quality of clean water and sanitation facilities, the results indicate a statistically significant positive perception among respondents. The mean score of 95, with a standard deviation of 7, suggests a strong consensus that these amenities are generally accessible and of acceptable quality within Kirikiri Prisons. This finding aligns with the acknowledgement of basic human rights within correctional settings.

Secondly, the assessment of healthcare services and medical facilities yielded a mean score of 92.67, indicating a favourable perception among respondents. While the standard deviation of 9.07 suggests some variability in responses, the overall positive mean suggests that inmates, correctional staff, and administrative personnel generally believe that adequate healthcare services are provided within the prison.

Lastly, the examination of educational and vocational training programs revealed a mean score of 82. The slightly lower mean, coupled with a higher standard deviation of 14.18, suggests more varied perspectives on the effectiveness and availability of educational programs. While there is a positive perception overall, the variability in responses highlights potential areas for improvement.

In conclusion, the study’s findings provide valuable insights into the conditions and perceptions within Kirikiri Prisons, offering a foundation for targeted reforms and improvements in the Nigerian correctional system. The positive perceptions regarding basic amenities underscore the importance of maintaining and enhancing these services to uphold human rights and support rehabilitation efforts within correctional facilities.


The following recommendations are proposed in this study

  1. Infrastructure Improvement: Addressing the persistent issue of overcrowding and inadequate facilities in Kirikiri Prisons and other correctional centres across Nigeria is crucial. The government should invest in infrastructural development, constructing new facilities and renovating existing ones to ensure that they meet international standards for inmate living conditions.
  2. Financial Investment: Allocate more financial resources to the correctional system. Adequate funding is essential for addressing the systemic issues, including the provision of basic amenities, staff training, and overall facility management. This can contribute significantly to the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates.
  3. Human Rights Training: Implement mandatory human rights training programs for correctional staff. This will ensure that staff members are well-versed in the rights of inmates, emphasizing the importance of providing access to basic amenities as an inherent human right. Such training can promote a culture of respect and dignity within the correctional system.
  4. Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish a robust monitoring and evaluation system to regularly assess the conditions within correctional centres. This involves conducting independent audits to ensure that inmates have access to clean water, sanitation, healthcare, and educational services. Regular evaluations can pinpoint areas that require immediate attention.
  5. Community Engagement: Foster community engagement and partnerships to support rehabilitation efforts. Collaboration with non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, and vocational training centres can enhance the availability of educational and skill-building programs within correctional facilities, aiding in the successful reintegration of inmates into society.
  6. Recidivism Reduction Programs: Develop and implement targeted programs aimed at reducing recidivism. These programs should focus on rehabilitation and reformation, addressing the root causes of criminal behaviour. Investing in educational and vocational training programs can equip inmates with skills that enhance their employability upon release.
  7. International Collaboration: Collaborate with international organizations and seek best practices from other countries with successful correctional systems. Learning from global experiences can provide valuable insights into effective policies, rehabilitation strategies, and infrastructural improvements that can be adapted to the Nigerian context.
  8. Legislative Reforms: Advocate for legislative reforms that prioritize human rights and the well-being of inmates. This includes revisiting and updating existing laws to align with international standards, and ensuring that the legal framework governing correctional facilities promotes a rehabilitative rather than punitive approach.


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