Agricultural Marketing and Cooperatives Project Topics

An Assessment of the Impact of Flooding on Food Scarcity and Marketing Activities, Implications for Farmers Education in Nasarawa Eggon Area,

An Assessment of the Impact of Flooding on Food Scarcity and Marketing Activities, Implications for Farmers Education in Nasarawa Eggon Area,



Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To determine the impact of flooding on food scarcity in Nasarawa
  2. To determine the impact of flooding on food marketing activities in Nasarawa
  3. To determine the implications of flooding on farmers education in Nasarawa

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses are formulated to guide the study;

  • H1: there is no impact of flooding on food scarcity in Nasarawa
  • H2: there is no impact of flooding on food marketing activities in Nasarawa





Climate change affects countries’ economies and food security through a variety of channels. Rising temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns affect agricultural yields of both rains fed and irrigated crops. The unchecked rise of sea levels leads to loss of land, landscape, and infrastructure. Mohapatra and Singh (2003) claim that, among all natural disasters, floods are the most frequent to be faced in India. On an average, floods have affected about 33 million persons between 1953 and 2000. Based on Sen’s “entitlement approach,” Devereux (2007) applies a framework to the recent food crises in Malawi and concludes that policy responses can compensate for the failures of production-based, labor-based, trade-based and transfer-based entitlements. A higher frequency of droughts may impair hydropower production and an increase in floods can significantly raise public investment requirements for physical infrastructure (Stern 2006; World Bank 2007; Garnaut 2008; Yu, Thurlow, et al. 2010; Yu, Zhu, et al. 2010). Such sector-level impacts will have knock-on effects on other sectors and thus influence economic growth, food security, and household incomes. Studying 20 African countries Theron (2007) concluded that floods had several socio economic and political implications and some of these included the displacement of people. Sinclair and Pengram (2003) have stated that floods cannot be prevented but their devastating effects can be minimized if the advanced warnings are available. Rashid (2000) concludes that women and children are the most vulnerable during the occurrence of floods. Ninno, etal (2003) studied the floods in Bangladesh and concluded that the floods have affected food security of millions of households. Mitiku et al (2012) have computed food security index using FGT model and revealed that about 36 per cent of Shashemene district in Ethiopia are food insecure. In a similar study in North Wello region of Ethiopia Ramakrishna et al (2002) found that 37 per cent households are food insecure. Droughts and floods undermine farm yields and the national harvest, reducing household and national food availability, and agricultural income derived from crop sales. Poor harvests threaten food security and livelihoods from household to national level, to varying degrees according to the extent that the family or nation depends on agriculture for its food and income. Households and economies that are more diversified are less vulnerable to these direct impacts of droughts and floods, provided that their alternative income sources are neither correlated with rainfall nor directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture (i.e., vulnerability falls to the extent that complementary sources of income and food are non-covariate. The literature review suggests that there are many studies across several countries on the effects of floods on households in terms of socio economic and political variables. However there are not many studies on internally displaced people in terms of their livelihoods and food security. The present study is an attempt in this direction and verifies the impact of floods on food security and lively hoods of IDP households along with other socio economic variables using appropriate empirical models

Conceptualizing Food Security

There exists a plethora of definitions on food security in the literature. Carter (1989) has this to say about food security; food security may be defined as the ability of food-deficit regions or countries, or households within these countries, to meet target levels of consumption on a yearly basis. They noted that what constitute target consumption is being referred to as two central issued of a country’s food policy. For Adisa (1992, cited in Okpanachi, 2004), ‘food security can be defined simply as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Accordingly, Eboh (1995, cited in Idachaba, 2004) described it thus: food security simply refers to the ability of individuals and households (especially the rural and urban poor) to meet staple food needs all year round’. Continuing, Eboh (1995), states that the above description is essentially intra-generational food security as opposed to inter-generations to meet their food needs, on season and off season. According to the 1996 World food Summit, food security is the people’s right to define their own policies and strategies for the sustainable production, distribution and consumption of food that guarantees the right to food for the entire population on the basis of small and medium sized production, respecting their own cultures and the diversity of peasant, fishing and indigenous forms of agricultural production, marketing and management of rural areas, in which women play a fundamental role. Food security is also seen as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life (Gurkarm, 2005). Abudullahi (2002, cited in Dauda, 2004), adds that food is not only a basic need; it also provides the physiological foundation upon which other considerations and human activities are structured. He noted that for us in Nigeria, food security is both a national objective and a challenge. Food security is not simply having sufficient and adequate quantities of our various staple foodstuffs but it also entails access to the entire citizenry to these food items at affordable prices. It further means that not only must we engage in mass food production, but also we need to ensure that most Nigeria have sufficient purchasing power to acquire food items that guarantee good feeding and nutrition.

Food security can also be defined as a condition where all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (World Food Summit, 2003). Indicators of food insecurity in a given region can include numbers of hungry or malnourished people, of underweight children and of people suffering from micronutrient deficiency. The importance of food to individuals and households cannot be overemphasized. For Siamwalla and Valdes (2004), food security is the ability of the countries, regions or households to meet target levels of food consumption on a yearly basis. In a similarly vein, the Committee on World Food Security posited that food security connotes physical and economic access to adequate food for all household members, without undue risk of losing the access. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) also defined food security as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and productive life. This implies: availability, accessibility, and proper utilization. Food security means ensuring that sufficient food is available; maintaining sufficient supplies through domestic production at relatively stable levels; allowing access to food for those in need of it; and ensuring biological utilization of food. This implies adequate storage against spoilage, disease and ensures nutrient balance. In addition, the World Bank (2007) looked at food security as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food security is thus peopleoriented and it implies a situation in which all households have both physical and economic access to adequate food for all members and households are not at risk of losing such. Food security has three aspects; food availability, food access and food adequacy (Nwaniki, 2007). Food availability has to do with the supply of food, that is to say food should be sufficient in quantity and quality and also should be in variety. If food security is to be attained, appropriate adaptation measures to climate change need to be taken within the global agricultural environment. The right to sufficient food is enshrined in the universal declaration of human rights and in subsequent international law. It is unfortunate to note that only 22 countries have embedded this right in their constitutions. Food security has to do with the absence of threats of hunger or malnutrition people face in their lives. In a broad sense, it entails safety from basic physiological needs. The lack of safety will be manifested in chronic hunger or starvation and malnutrition. It can either be chronic or transitory. Chronic food insecurity is a perpetual inadequate diet resulting from the lack of resources to produce or acquire food. Transitory food insecurity on the other hand, is temporary decline in household’s access to enough food. It results from instability in food production and prices, or in household incomes. Both conditions are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. It is informative to also note that food security measures are in tandem with the UN MDGs of reducing population of hungry people by half in 2015. All the above definitions have stressed that food security is of supreme importance in improving the nutritional status of many millions of people who suffer from persistent hunger and under nutrition and many others who are at the risk of facing the same situation. They have also touched some important components of the concept of food security. For instance, Carter (1989 and Adisa (1992, cited in Ogiji, 2004) talked of food sufficiency, food adequacy and food accessibility. World Bank (1989), Kennedy and Hadded, (1992, cited in Dakare, 2004), noted that food security is access by all peoples at all times to enough food supply, food access and food utilization. These concepts will further be analysed. Akinyele (2009, cited in FAO, 2011) supports the view of World Bank (2006) by noting that food availability, stability of supplies and food access are related determinants of food security. From the above perspectives, it can be implied that food crisis can occur when at a point in time it is no longer possible for people to have access to food or even have the capacity to purchase it. Currently, the situation seems to be the case in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa. The crisis has arisen, as shall be seen, due to poor implementation of agricultural policies and programs, a situation that has resulted into food insufficiency both in quantity and quality due to prolonged years of neglect or insensitively on the part of the institutions responsible for encouraging food production

Climate change as a driver of food insecurity

Climate change is defined as ‘any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity’ (IPCC 2001: 2). Climate change has turned into a global issue and has worsened in recent times. It is now considered a climate crisis and threatens the agricultural production due to higher and more inconsistent temperatures as well as the variation in rainfall patterns and extreme events, such as droughts and floods, occurring more often (Ojo and Adebayo, 2012: 211; Ogbo et al., 2013: 221). With this change, researchers decided to study the relationship between climate change and food security. Studies were done concerning one single country, several countries, or simply regions. Most of the research has been conducted through surveys, direct observation, and weather data. They often used a modeling approach, because they often predicted future scenarios (Zewdie, 2014; Berhanu and Wolde, 2019; Wossen et al., 2018; Fudjumdjum et al. 2019). Researchers agree upon several impacts that climate change already has or will have on food security: on the cultivation and crop yields, as well as on biodiversity. Climate change affects the first aspect of the food supply chain most. Food production starts with crop growth and cultivation. These are strongly affected by climate variability and therefore especially the agricultural sector is hit by climate change. (Jung and Kunstmann, 2007; Wossen and Berger, 2015). In Iran for example Karimi et al. (2018) have with the help of crop modeling looked towards the possible impacts, the decline of water resources and precipitation, warmer temperature, and higher CO2 emissions will have on crop growth and food production. Their findings were similar to the majority of research: food production depends on a steady climate and enough clean water resources.



5.1 Introduction      

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain an assessment of the impact of flooding on food  scarcity and marketing activities, implications for farmers education in nasarawa Eggon area, nasarawa state, Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing impact of flooding on food  scarcity and marketing activities, implications for farmers education


This study was on an assessment of the impact of flooding on food scarcity and marketing activities, implications for farmers education in Nasarawa Eggon area, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included:  To determine the impact of flooding on food scarcity in Nasarawa, to determine the impact of flooding on food marketing activities in Nasarawa and to determine the implications of flooding on farmers education in Nasarawa. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from farmers in Nasarawa. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).


Based on the different food groups consumed by households and the influence of extreme weather conditions such as excessive heat and flooding, only 20.63% of the respondents were food secure. The study also established that an increase in those variables that significantly determine and are positively related to food security would increase the food security status of the respondents


  • The need to promote sustainable livelihood among rural households through job creating programmes and enactment of policies for reducing poverty and ensuring food security such as National Poverty Eradication Programmes (NAPEP) and Graduate Internship Scheme (GIS) in rural areas. These empower the rural households by exploring income diversification opportunities thereby improving wage earning capacity.
  • Policies of reducing poverty and ensuring food security need to include climate change strategies. A detailed analysis of the risk and possible solutions could assist in finding appropriate adaptation strategies and play an important role in achieving food security and fighting poverty. Climate change management authorities such as NIMET should be encouraged to provide farmers with early warning signals via an organized extension service programme.
  • Visit of extension agent has the ability of helping the farming households with better decision making process which will enhance better production.
  • Nutrition oriented programmes should also be implemented to improve on the food substitution capabilities of the households. This becomes effective by ensuring improved educational level through adult education and training and increased awareness and access to better family planning facilities.


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