An Evaluation of Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Increasing Productivity in Public Organizations (A Case Study of Nigeria Prisons, Kaduna Command)
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to critically examine Human capital development as a means of increasing productivity. The specific objectives are:
- To identify the need for human capital development programmes in prison services.
- To examine the problems of developing employees for productivity
- To look into whether the development of qualitative programmes increases productivity and smoothen the provision of prison services.
- To determine human factors as an integral part of organizational resources for organizational survival.\
This chapter focused on the review of related literature, books, journals and publications of various authors, scholars and researchers on the subject matter will be dealt with extensively such as what productivity itself means, factors that influence productivity in an organization, determination of human capital needs and appraisal by result etc.
DEFINITION OF HUMAN CAPITAL AND HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT
The human capital of an organization consists of the people who work and on whom the success of the business depends. Personal and materials success is increasingly correlated with the possession of skills. Skilled individuals can command a premium salary in periods of high economic activity. Worldwide, unemployment level remain high while organizations have difficulty in filling vacancies that require specific expertise.
According to Sullivan and Steven (2003) Human capital development is about recruiting, supporting and investing in people through education, training, coaching, mentoring internships, organizational development and human resources management.
Human capital development recognizes that the development and growth of people in organizations and business are an important and essential asset to the organizations future success.
Healthfield (2011) defined human capital development as the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and ability. According to her, human capital development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employees identification, tuition assistance and organization development.
The focus of all human capital development is on developing the most superior workforce, so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. Healthy organizations believe in human capital development and cover all of those bases.
More importantly, Heathfield (2011) suggests that the shortage of skilled people can act as a limiting factor on individual organization and on the economy as a whole. It is in the interest of individual organization and the nation to maximize its human resource by investing in the skills of its work force, its human capital. Human capital is a crucial component of an organization’s overall competitiveness. It can be argued that economic growth, employment levels and the availability of a skilled workforce are interrelated. Economic growth creates employments, but economic growth partly depends on skilled human resources organizations”
Aan (2004) opined that the concept of human capital encompasses investment in the skill of labour force, including education and vocational training to develop specific skills.
According to Sulivan and Steven (2003) human capital represents the knowledge, skills and ability that make possible for people to do their jobs.
Schaltz (1993) defined the term human capital as a key element in improving a firm assets and employees in order to increase productivity as well as to sustain competitive advantage. Human capital development involves processes that relate to training, education and other inventions in order to increase the level of knowledge, skills, abilities, values, and social assets of an employees which will lead to the employees satisfaction performance and eventually on a firm performance.
Rustogi (2000) stated that human capital is an important input for organization especially for employees’ continuous improvement mainly on knowledge, skills and abilities. Thus, the definition of human capital as “the knowledge, skills, competences and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal social and economic well being.
The rapid development of the human capital development has led to greater attention being paid to training. Human capital development is any activities which leads to the improvement in the quality (productivity) of the workers thus, training is an important component of human capital development. It refers to the training undergone by a person that increases his or her capabilities in performing activities which are of economic values.
Doucouliagos (1997) has noted human capital as a source to motivate workers, boost up their commitment and create expenditure in research and development (R & D) and eventually pave way for the generation of new knowledge for the economy and society in general.
PURPOSE OF HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT
According to Asian Development Bank (1999), the significance of human capital development has to do with a concept called human capital or the education, skills levels, and problem solving abilities that will enable an individual to be a productive workers in the global economy of the twenty first century Thurow, (1992).
Human capital is the main resource that makes the difference and drives organizational performance. For people to work effectively, and behavior to be understood, organizations must adapt different systems that would create skilled and loyal employees. Organizations must also be knowledgeable in legal, technological, social and economical issues, in order to meet the needs of employees and assist them in achieving organizational goals.
The challenges facing human resources managers today include more flexible work force, managing changes, new technological and continuous development of employees. In addition, organizations are realizing that in order to adequately address human resources concerns in face of new and increased responsibilities and challenges, they must develop long-term as well as short term solutions.
Human capital development involves human resource planning recruitment, training/development and motivation.
The research design for this study follows a survey pattern using descriptive analysis. This is considered adequate because it is widely used to investigate problems in realistic setting. It also affords the researcher the opportunities to meet and ask before getting answers as in the case of the validated questionnaires checklist.
Peter Chrismal (1981) defined a research population as any group or object which are similar in one or more ways and which form the subject of study in a particular study.
Hence the research population being considered here is the employees of Prison Services Kaduna State Command. The command is made up of 99 staff, both junior and senior staff as at 3rd may 2010.
DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
Data Presentation and Analysis
The study was carried out to evaluate human capital development as a strategy for increasing productivity in public organizations; a case study of Nigeria prisons, Kaduna command. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data. In all, 20 questionnaires were administered were completed and returned by staff of the command. One-on-one interviews were also conducted by the researcher.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The research work is on the topic “An Evaluation of Human Capital Development as a Strategy in Public Organizations”. A case study of Nigerian Prisons, Kaduna Command.
In the research, the following are the summary of findings.
- There is indeed a good and effective staff training and development policy which is significantly affecting employee productivity in the prison services. This is seen from the various arrangements put in place to address issues such as the gap in staff strength, training, development and productivity.
- Staff training/development in the prison services is appropriately planned for. This notwithstanding, management does not give every staff equal opportunity to benefit from in-service training and development programmes.
- The staff strength in the Nigeria prison is grossly inadequate, thus making supportive supervision of junior staff by senior staff very difficult. Also the number of personnel is highly inadequate compared with the number of prisoners? and so staff make extra effort to give them enough attention.
- Staff motivation in the prison service needs to be improved upon as not many officers receive their promotion as at when due nor enjoy other entitlements apart from salaries, nor receive adequate compensation for work hazards.
If organization want to effectively and efficiently accomplish the goal for which it is created, Human Capital development should have significant effect on employees productivity.
Staff training and development has been a source of motivation and productivity in the Nigeria prison, Kaduna command.
In conclusion, Human Capital development which has to do with training and development is a strategy which the Nigeria prison service has used for increasing productivity.
Based on findings from the research, the following are hereby recommended.
- The rules and policies in place for human resource planning should be sustained.
- The management should give every staff equal opportunity to benefit from in-service training and development programmes.
- The appropriate government organ responsible for staff recruitment in the command prison service should endeavour to employ more staff to alleviate the problem of inadequacy of staff in the service.
- To achieve the desired character reformation of staff, there is the need to make available rehabilitation programmes that will ensure skills acquisition.
- Staff promotion should be carried out as at when due to enhance motivation and productivity.
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