Business Education Project Topics

An Evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools

An Evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools

An Evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools

Chapter One


The primary aim of this study is to evaluate job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools. Other aims of this study are:

  1. To examine the factors that influence job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools.
  2. To determine the factors that hinders job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools.
  3. To proffer possible solutions to these factors that hinder job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools.



Conceptualization of Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been defined and conceptualized in many ways. Schaffer’s (1953, p.3, cited in Evans, 1997) interpretated job satisfaction is one of individual’s needs fulfillment: ‘overall job satisfaction will vary directly with the extent to which those needs of an individual which can be satisfied in a job are actually satisfied; the stronger the need, the more closely will job satisfaction depend on it’s’. Sergiovanni (1968) also supports the personal needs’ fulfillment interpretation, and draws attention to the evident link between Herzberg’s (1968), motivation – hygiene theory and Maslow’s (1954), theory of human motivation, based upon a hierarchy of human needs. Lawler and Porter (1973) focuses on expectations, rather than needs; ‘overall job satisfaction is determined by the difference between all those things a person feels he ‘should’ receive from his job and all those things he actually ‘does’ receive. Locke (1969) however, dismisses both needs and expectations in favor of values. He defines job satisfaction as: ‘the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving orfacilitating the achievement of one’s values’, while Nias (1989) accepts Lortie’s (1975) cited in Evans (1997), interpretated job satisfaction as a summary of the total rewards experienced (in teaching). Kalleberg (1977) on the other and, identifies both ‘job rewards’ and ‘job values’ as the determinants of job satisfaction, which he defines as: ‘an overall effective orientation on the part of individuals toward work roles which they are presently occupying’. Katzell (1964) adopts the all-encompassing term ‘frame of reference’ to include ‘values’, ‘goals’, ‘desires’ or ‘interests’. He refers to ‘job features which a person perceives as attractive or repellent, desirable or undesirable’ and interprets job satisfaction as ‘a response to the activities, events and conditions which compose of the job’ (p.348). Similarly, Rosen and Rosen (1955) use the rather generic term ‘desires’. The source of much of this disagreement lies with the hierarchical positions, as determinants of satisfaction of what Katzell (1964) identifies as the different ‘frames of reference’. It arises over whether, for example, needs determine values or vice versa. As you may recall, job satisfaction can be defined as the amount of overall positive effect (feeling) that an individual has towards his job. In other words, job satisfaction is the extent to which is a worker feels positively or negatively about his or her job (Locke, 1976). As we have been previously, it can be conceptualized in variety of ways, such as extrinsic, intrinsic or general satisfaction. Hackman and Oldham (1980) have commented that, an individual who had high satisfaction means that the individual generally likes and values his job highly and feels positively towards it. In sum, job satisfaction is one’s attitudes towards one’s job, which reflect assessment on both internal and external factors surrounding one’s job.





In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.


Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.


According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.

This study was carried to examine an evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools. Selected secondary schools in Akamkpa local government area of Cross River state form the population of the study.




This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.




It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to an Evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing challenges of evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools.


This study was on an Evaluation of Job Satisfaction Among Teachers in Secondary Schools. Seven objectives were raised which included:  To examine the factors that influence job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools, to determine the factors that hinders job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools and to proffer possible solutions to these factors that hinders job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected secondary schools in Akamkpa local government area of Cross River state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).


From the study, it has been shown that factors like working environment, informal relationship, participatory leadership, recognition and better pay when they exist in a work place do not necessary contribute to teachers job satification and students performance. Despite the existence of several motivational strategies to encourge teachers to perform, students may still record low acedmic performance if they are faced with poor funding of the schools by the government, inadequate teaching materials, lack of parental care and low cognitive ability among others. To enhance students acedmic performance therefore, students themselves must be up and doing while government and parents must rise up to their responsibilites


Government should increase budgettary allocation for education to make more money available to the sector for general improvement in the areas of salary and infrastructural facilities . 

Parents should endeavour to live up to expectations by providing adequately for the needs of their children for maximum concentration and better performance. 

Students themselves should remain focussed and abstain themselves from all activities and behaviours that could hinder their concentration from studies. 

School board monitoring team should be resucitated and empowered for effective and efficient monitoring. As liaison officers they should work to instill efficiency among the teachers and create positive relationship between school authorities, teachers and the students for better outcome.


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