An Examination of Leadership Styles and Their Effectiveness in the Organization Performance (A Case Study of Birnin Kebbi Local Government)
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this project work as to give an in-depth research or examination of leadership style effectiveness in the organization performance: Some of the objectives are as follows:
- To identify some of the general characteristic of a leader and show the situation in which a group find its seat in determining the choice of a leader.
- To determine how the leaders behavior affects the behavior of others in different fields.
- To examine the various ingredients and function of leadership.
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
There is no universal agreement on what leadership is or how it is conceptualized. Akpan (1982:3) defined leadership as “ability to influence subordinate to do what they have to do. It has been defined as the art of inducing subordinate to accomplish their assignments seal and confidence”.
According to Montgomer (1962) defined leadership as the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purposed, and the character which inspires confidence. Thus, leadership has to do with character, inspiration and capacity in guiding the conduct of subordinates. Lord Slim further attempted to differentiate between leadership and management. He said “There is different between leadership and management. Leadership is of the spirit, compounded of personality and vision; its practice is an art. Management is of the mind, more a matter of accurate calculations, of statistics, of methods, timetables, and routines, its practice is science, managers are necessary; while leaders are essential”. Viewed from the standard point of result, leadership can be defined as getting people to what the leader wants them to do because he has influenced or inspired them to believe it is what they want to do.
Leadership is viewed from other contest by Robert C. Klekamp, Daniel W. Geesing in their work entitled Management Principles and Practices (1982). They defined leadership as a way of stimulating and motivating subordinates to accomplish assign task. Apart from stimulating leadership is also concerned with guiding, conducting and directing.
He/she moves the group within the constraints of it maximum capabilities to attain certain specified objectives. Their group response will depend upon capacities of the leaders.
Leadership has a greater relevant in activating and controlling sector, one should assume that leading is synonymous with managing. A good manager is a good leader, may not increase to be a manager.
Leadership was defined by Mallam Hammed Yanga (1960) in management as the “Process of influencing members of the organization or to work willingly with zeal and confidence so that organizational or the group’s objective can be accomplished. To lead is to guide, direct and proceed” According to Apple (1961), leadership simply refers the ability of management to induce subordinate to work toward organizational goals with confidence and Drucker (1962) argues that when we talk of leadership, we are talking common men. Leadership “Is the lifetime of a man’s vision to higher sights, the raising of man’s performance to a higher standard, the building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitation”. Therefore, leadership occurs whenever one person influence and other to work toward some prediction goals, willingly and enthusiastically.
Leadership is term used to describe a position in an organizational hierarchy. Following this definition, the president of chief executive officer of a firm is a leader by virtue of holding a high office. Others use the term to describe particular personal characteristic under this definition, a person is fudged a leader because of possessing certain style (for example; perseverance, maturity, intelligence, fairness, spirit of competition inquisitiveness, honesty and integrity, among others).
Finally, the term leadership is also used to describe a category of behavior, following this development, leadership refer to a dynamic process in which individual behaves in a certain manner thereby influencing other to follow stating. To those view point, leadership is the art of individual or group activities towards achievement of enterprise goal. Leadership has given a variety of definition in behavioral science; leadership is social influencing process for the attainment of goals.
A leader is the most influential person in organization who provides direction to follow, guide group activities and ensures group objective are realize. The function of leadership pervades all organizations. A good leader therefore, is one who of personating other to move enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals. An example of a charismatic leader could be creative, initiative and moving on his speech, actions including his style of interaction with other people in his society.
Leaders characteristically induce or inspire other to achieve leadership because it occurs within a specific situation on the role or function of leadership. According to Nwachukwu (1962) maintained despite all that has been written about leadership, there had been no consensus on the primary role or function of leadership.
In other views, the topic leadership is not an easy one to tackle, who is a leader? What does leadership mean? Ask these questions from any randomly selected group and a multitude of conflicting answers will ensure.
We have been told that some people are born leaders; other shave leadership trust upon them. But today, psychologist agrees that leaders can in fact be made. Leadership consists of certain fundamental positive style which can be learned and applied to anyone.
Moreover, the concept goal derived from leadership theory. These theories suggest that leaders are effective because of their position impact on flowers motivation, ability at performance and satisfaction. It is called path-goal, due, in essences to the leadership influence on the subordinates’ perceptions of work goals; itself develop goals, and attainment. The basic of goal concept is expectancy motivation which state that an individual’s attitude, job satisfaction behavior is seen as leading to various out comes that is the valances/or the preference for those outcome.
CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP
According to Chester (1938), leader defined “the goals that organization purses the develop, the planning and control system that guide and monitor the organization destiny they construct structure appropriately for the tasks undertaken and they motivate their subordinate to complete these tasks”.
International encyclopedia of social defined leader as somebody who rapidly perceive to perform the act of leadership. Traditionally the term leader applied to power status and disparity. Stodgill defined a leader as person who occupies a high level of responsibilities.
Manager (1996) defined manager could be defined as person who make things happen through the efforts of other people because without the use of people, there are not means of achieving the objective or goals of an organization. A manager is a person who own business or employed by the entrepreneur to manage the business on behalf of broader perspective. A manager therefore, is persons who carry out the following process (planning, organizing, staffing leading and controlling) and they study management in order to improve the management skills. At this stage of growth, there must be men women whose job is to plan, organize, and control the works of the others. The above mentioned types are a concise function of a manager and the role he/she is expected to perform in any institution or organization.
A leader who works hard will have followers that will learn to emulate him. Gorman think as their leaders think and men known unerring how their leaders think.
Because of importance of leadership to all kind of group action there is a considerable volume of theories and research concerning it difficult to summarize such a large body of research in a form of relevant today management? However, in the succeeding page we shall identify several major types of leadership theory and outline some basic kind of leadership styles.
It is no wonder that when Stogdill completed his survey of leadership theory and research in 1974, he found it necessary to abstract and analyzed over zoo books and articles in the field.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine an Examination Of Leadership Styles And Their Effectiveness In The Organization Performance. Birnin Kebbi Local Government form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain an examination of leadership styles and their effectiveness in the organization performance ( a case study of Birnin kebbi local government). In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of an examination of leadership styles and their effectiveness in the organization performance
This study was on an examination of leadership styles and their effectiveness in the organization performance. Three objectives were raised which included: To identify some of the general characteristic of a leader and show the situation in which a group find its seat in determining the choice of a leader, to determine how the leaders behavior affects the behavior of others in different fields and to examine the various ingredients and function of leadership. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from Birnin kebbi local government. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
The study concludes that leadership style of the organization greatly influence the performance and organizational output. Organization will function effectively when management employs a proper leadership styled. Therefore, harmony should be created between workers, management and the task environment.
We recommend that democratic, participatory and supportive leadership should exist within the organization, leaders should set vibrant high performance organizational culture through interpersonal relation, dialogues and transparency. Leaders should adopt effective communication pattern to produce enthusiasm and foster an atmosphere of confidence within the organization. It should note that the aforementioned as indices and indexes of democratic leadership style which culminated to high performance.
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