An Intelligent System for Combatting Crime/Terrorism in Selected Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aims of this study include.
- Developing an intelligent crime combating system
- Tracking of illegal acts and finding such perpetrators of such acts.
The objectives of this study include:
- Examining related texts and research material in similar scope of study
- Examining the Software Life Cycle methodology that works best to implement the software.
- Finding out the best programming tools to best implement it
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter examines in detail, the history and developments made in ICT social communication, previous research work on this subject, the characteristics, models, architectures and limitations as pointed out by various scholars and researchers. This will provide the groundwork for figuring out an efficient way to implement an active crime combat system.
OVERVIEW OF CRIME COMBAT
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice.
Criminologists, commissions, and research bodies such as the World Health Organization, United Nations, the United States National Research Council, the UK Audit Commission have analyzed their and others’ research on what lowers rates of interpersonal crime.
They agree that governments must go beyond law enforcement and criminal justice to tackle the risk factors that cause crime because it is more cost effective and leads to greater social benefits than the standard ways of responding to crime. Multiple opinion polls also confirm public support for investment in prevention. Waller uses these materials in Less Law, More Order to propose specific measures to reduce crime as well as a crime bill. (Inlander, 2018)
The World Health Organization Guide (2004) complements the World Report on Violence and Health (2002) and the 2003 World Health Assembly Resolution 56-24 for governments to implement nine recommendations, which were:
- Create, implement, and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention.
- Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence.
- Define priorities for, and support research on, the causes, consequences, costs and prevention of violence.
- Promote primary prevention responses.
- Strengthen responses for victims of violence.
- Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and thereby promote gender and social equality.
- Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence prevention.
- Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other mechanisms to protect human rights.
- Seek practical, internationally agreed responses to the global drugs and global arms trade.
The commissions agree on the role of municipalities because they are best able to organize the strategies to tackle the risk factors that cause crime. The European Forum for Urban Safety and the United States Conference of Mayors have stressed that municipalities must target the programs to meet the needs of youth at risk and women who are vulnerable to violence.
To succeed, they need to establish a coalition of key agencies such as schools, job creation, social services, housing, and law enforcement around a diagnosis.
Several factors must come together for a crime to occur:
- an individual or group must have the desire or motivation to participate in a banned or prohibited behavior.
- at least some of the participants must have the skills and tools needed to commit the crime; and,
- an opportunity must be acted upon.
Primary prevention addresses individual and family-level factors correlated with later criminal participation. Individual level factors such as attachment to school and involvement in pro-social activities decrease the probability of criminal involvement.
Family-level factors such as consistent parenting skills similarly reduce individual level risk. Risk factors are additive in nature. The greater the number of risk factors present the greater the risk of criminal involvement. In addition, there are initiatives which seek to alter rates of crime at the community or aggregate level.
For example, Larry Sherman from the University of Maryland in Policing Domestic Violence (1993) demonstrated that changing the policy of police response to domestic violence calls altered the probability of subsequent violence. Policing hot spots, areas of known criminal activity, decreases the number of criminal events reported to the police in those areas. Other initiatives include community policing efforts to capture known criminals. Organizations such as America’s Most Wanted, and Crime Stoppers help catch these criminals.
Secondary prevention uses intervention techniques that are directed at youth who are at high risk to commit crime, and especially focus on youth who drop out of school or get involved in gangs. It targets social programs and law enforcement at neighborhoods where crime rates are high. Much of the crime that is happening in neighborhoods with high crime rates is related to social and physical problems. The use of secondary crime prevention in cities such as Birmingham and Bogotá has achieved large reductions in crime and violence. Programs, such as, general social services, educational institutions, and the police, are focused on youth who are at risk and have been shown to significantly reduce crime.
Tertiary prevention is used after a crime has occurred in order to prevent successive incidents. Such measures can be seen in the implementation of new security policies following acts of terrorism such as the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Situational crime prevention uses techniques focusing on reducing on the opportunity to commit a crime. Some of techniques include increasing the difficulty of crime, increasing the risk of crime, and reducing the rewards of crime. Barthe(2006)
This chapter reviews how the existing system works as well as how to produce a better alternative for its improvement. The relationship among actors, entities, platform and information flows within the organization is very important. In a nutshell, system investigation and analysis studies an existing system with the view of improving on it or developing an entirely new system to replace the existing one. The major task here is to design a new system using tested and trusted development methods that is as efficient and probably more efficient than the existing one. The software development model is the Waterfall model.
IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS
This chapter discusses the deployment and testing of crime combating system after the design and development. The Hardware and Software Requirements as well as Development tools are identified in this chapter.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
A crime combat system based on reporting was developed in this project. The system was able to register users and enable them to access the platform to apply for advertised positions. The platform also has been developed through the examination of previous scholarly articles and related systems.
In conclusion, we have been able to come up with a crime combat platform that is quite different from the existing tedious methods.
- “Our Kids, Our Problem”. Inlander. Inlander. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- Barthe, Emmanuel (2006). “Crime Prevention Publicity Campaigns”. U.S. Department of Justice. p. 9.
- Freilich, Joshua D.; Newman, Graeme R. (2017). “Situational Crime Prevention”. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. doi:1093/acrefore/9780190264079.013.3. ISBN9780190264079.
- Willison R. (2006). “Understanding the perpetration of employee computer crime in the organisational context”Information and Organisation. 16 (4):304–324. doi:1016/j.infoandorg.2006.08.001. hdl:10398/6463.
- Clarke, R (1997) Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (2nd ed.) Harrow and Heston, New York, ISBN978-0911577389
- Benton H.(2009), Automated Traffic Enforcement Systems: The Efficacy of Such Systems and Their Effect on Traffic Law, p. 13 http://works.bepress.com/benton_page/1/