An Investigation Into the Attitudes of Family Planning Among Health Care Users and Market Women
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the attitudes of family planning among Health care users and market women. The specific objectives are;
- To ascertain whether family size influence attitude of health care users towards family planning
- To find out whether socio-economic status of a family influence couples attitude towards family planning
- To find out whether marital status influence the attitude of couples towards family planning
- To find out whether religion influence the attitude of couples towards family planning
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
Knowledge about contraceptives is very significant in order to use the appropriate method of spacing between children. Health care providers are the key persons who can provide awareness and can guide for better choices among contraceptive to the general population (Mbando, et al., 2011). It is important to know the preferred method of practices of contraceptives among health care providers because they are the health educators. In most of the studies it was found that education is the prime influencing factor. It may have a direct influence on fertility, since education affects the attitudinal and behavioral patterns of the individuals. A number of Knowledge Attitude and Practice survey have been carried out covering different population groups (Thapa, et al., 2015& Rao, et al., 2005). A survey conducted in Manipur concluded that the use of modern family planning methods increases with education, while female sterilization prevalence decline sharply with women’s education level (Ayub, et al., 2015). Moreover, recent analysis of Demographic Health Survey (DHS) for 25 developing countries confirms previous findings from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) that the better educated women are more likely to practice contraception (Lamidi, 2015). A study conducted by Samba (2014) on the Nurses and Nursing students about Emergency Contraceptives (EC) in Kenya mentioned that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. A study conducted in Lahore at Aitcison Hospital reveals that the level of education of the women was 43 percent is matric however, 60 percent have the awareness related to contraceptives. In addition 54 percent women approved the use of contraception. Another study conducted at Lahore, Pakistan revealed the low level of education that is 70 percent illiterate followed by the low prevalence of contraception that is 27.9 percent (Manzoor, et al., 2013). The above studies clearly show the difference of urban and rural practices of contraception and the relationship of education too. A study conducted with the women having unplanned pregnancy in Nigeria revealed the knowledge of contraception up to 85 percent among Nigerian women. The source of knowledge was the health care provider followed by mass media 38.4 percent and 21.4 percent respectively. The women agreed to the usefulness of contraception that is 86 percent however, only 8.7 percent women ever used the contraception. The constraints identified in this study were partner 54 percent, ill health 35 percent and religion contributed to 28 percent (Ross, et al., 2013). Health Care Providers also have a major influence on the public’s sexual and reproductive health because many people consider them to be the best source of information on these issues. Not only are providers thought to be more knowledgeable by virtue of their training, but they are also believed to be more likely to keep matters confidential. For low-literate people, or those with limited access to the media or the Internet, health providers may be their only source of scientific information (Tavrow, 2010). The role of health care provider is very much significant in practicing contraceptives and reproductive health. Some important questions about the role of provider attitudes and practices still have not been adequately researched. To date, reviewers have found no empirical evidence concerning the impact of provider behaviors on clients (Tavrow, 2010). Age is also an important determinant for contraceptive choice. CPR is most common in young adults’ females as compare to the older adults. It is been concluded that majority (52.4%) of the women using contraception were in the age group of 15-34 years. The choice of contraceptive method can be influenced by the partner choice, self- health, family choice, religion and number of children (Manzoor, 2013). The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraceptive methods to enhance the contraceptive practice in future. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is defined as the percentage of married women, aged 15-49 years, using modern and traditional methods of contraception (Mustafa, et al., 2015). Contraceptive prevalence rate of Pakistan is 29.6% as compare to India 56.3%, Iran 73.7% that is high. But Afghanistan has 18.6% that is low in comparison to Pakistan (Rao, 2005). It shows that the prevalence rate of Pakistan is comparatively less than the neighboring countries except Afghanistan. There is an immense need to know the awareness, practice and attitude of the nurses because they play a key role in health industry. The preferences of health care providers and family planning educators directly influence the information provided to clients, thus swaying women’s decisions concerning method adoption. Specific method recommendations by health care workers reflect their training and may be partially motivated by incentives to adopt the same preferences expressed by other individuals and institutions (Ross, et al., 2013). There are many contraceptives available in the market but the choice of the contraceptive depends upon the efficacy of the drug and also the side effects. The first edition of the WHO’s Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) states that, “WHO is giving priority to improving access to high quality care in family planning through a variety of strategies” and lists one of these strategies as “promoting the widest availability of different contraceptive methods so that people may select what is most appropriate to their needs and circumstances” (Harper, et al., 2012). Approval of family planning was shown by 41% of males, as perceived by their wives in contrast to other studies of Sindh and Punjab, where 78% and 74% of husbands approved the use of contraceptive methods at the time of survey. Whereas, According to Pakistan Reproductive Health and Family Planning Survey 2000-2001 and Eastern Turkey, husband’s disapproval was the main factor for not using any family planning method among married women (Mustafa, et al., 2015). Attitude of husband was found to be an important factor for contraception use (Zakar, et al., 2012 & Alemayehu, et al., 2012). Religion could be another predictor for contraceptive use. a study conducted in America states that the patterns of contraceptive use do not differ by religious affiliation among married women (Corbin, 2013). However the study conducted in Bangladesh where majority of the nurses are Muslims. Kamal, (2015) stated that The Quran does not prohibit birthcontrol, nor does it forbid a husband or wife to space pregnancies or limit their number. Thus, the great majority of Islamic jurists believe that family planning is permissible in Islam. Culture is another important predictor to influence the practices in the locality. Contraceptive use is likely to be affected by the fundamental cultural and social traits of a society (Yadav, et al., 2015)
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine an investigation into the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women. Ikosi/Isheri, Ketu and Oworoshoki in kosofe local government area in Lagos State form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain investigation into the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing investigation into the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women.
This study was on investigation into the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain whether family size influence attitude of health care users towards family planning, to find out whether socio-economic status of a family influence couples attitude towards family planning, to find out whether marital status influence the attitude of couples towards family planning and to find out whether religion influence the attitude of couples towards family planning. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from Ikosi/Isheri, Ketu and Oworoshoki in kosofe local government area in Lagos State. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
In conclusion, this study aimed to investigate the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women. Through a comprehensive analysis of the collected data, several key findings have emerged, shedding light on the prevailing attitudes and perceptions surrounding family planning within these two distinct groups.
Firstly, it was evident that health care users demonstrated a higher level of awareness and acceptance of family planning methods compared to market women. This discrepancy can be attributed to the regular exposure of health care users to medical professionals and reliable information channels, which contribute to their informed decision-making regarding family planning. On the other hand, market women, who may have limited access to health care services and reliable information, exhibited a relatively lower level of awareness and understanding of family planning practices.
Secondly, the study highlighted that while both health care users and market women acknowledged the benefits of family planning in terms of maternal and child health, there were significant barriers preventing its widespread adoption. Factors such as cultural norms, religious beliefs, and misconceptions about family planning methods were found to influence attitudes and hinder utilization. Addressing these barriers requires targeted educational campaigns, community engagement, and involvement of religious and cultural leaders to dispel myths and misconceptions and promote the advantages of family planning.
Furthermore, the study emphasized the importance of improving access to family planning services, particularly for market women who may face logistical challenges in seeking healthcare. By integrating family planning services within marketplaces or establishing mobile clinics, healthcare providers can reach this specific population more effectively, ensuring greater access and uptake of family planning methods.
Lastly, the findings underscored the need for collaborative efforts between healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and stakeholders to create an enabling environment that supports and promotes family planning. Strengthening health systems, increasing investments in family planning programs, and empowering women with decision-making autonomy are crucial steps toward achieving sustainable and equitable reproductive health outcomes.
Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women. By recognizing the existing barriers and tailoring interventions to address them, we can foster positive attitudes, enhance access to family planning services, and ultimately contribute to improved reproductive health outcomes for individuals, families, and communities alike.
Based on the findings of the study on the attitudes of family planning among health care users and market women, several recommendations can be made to promote positive attitudes, increase access, and improve utilization of family planning services:
- Strengthen Information and Education: Develop comprehensive and culturally sensitive educational campaigns to raise awareness about family planning among both health care users and market women. These campaigns should address common misconceptions, provide accurate information about different family planning methods, and highlight the benefits of family planning for maternal and child health.
- Improve Access to Family Planning Services: Enhance accessibility of family planning services by integrating them within marketplaces or establishing mobile clinics that specifically cater to the needs of market women. This will help overcome logistical barriers and ensure convenient and timely access to services.
- Engage Community Leaders and Religious Institutions: Collaborate with community leaders and religious institutions to promote positive attitudes toward family planning. Encourage their involvement in educational initiatives, dispelling myths and misconceptions, and emphasizing the compatibility of family planning with cultural and religious values.
- Empower Women: Empower women by providing them with information, decision-making autonomy, and access to a range of family planning methods. Promote gender equality and women’s rights, ensuring that they have the freedom to make informed choices about their reproductive health.
- Strengthen Health Systems: Invest in strengthening health systems to provide high-quality family planning services. This includes training healthcare providers on family planning counseling, ensuring the availability of a wide range of contraceptive methods, and improving infrastructure and supply chains to support the delivery of these services.
- Foster Multi-Sectoral Collaboration: Establish partnerships between healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and stakeholders to create an enabling environment for family planning. Collaborative efforts can help address social, cultural, and economic factors influencing family planning attitudes and facilitate the implementation of effective interventions.
- Monitor and Evaluate Programs: Implement a robust monitoring and evaluation system to assess the impact of family planning programs and interventions. Regularly collect and analyze data to identify gaps, measure progress, and inform evidence-based decision-making for continuous improvement.
- Singh S, Darroch JE, Ashford LS. Adding it up 2014: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health. Guttmacher Institute, United Nations Population Fund Agency, 2014. 2.
- UN, DESA. World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Highlights and Advance Tables. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistic division. Working paper no.228, 2013. 3.
- Roudi-Fahimi F, Abdul Monem A, Ashford L, ElAdawy M. Women’s need for family planning in Arab countries. United Nation Population Fund Agency, Arab State Regional Office, Pan Arab Project for Family Health, Population Reference bureau, 2012. 4.
- UN-Iraq, MoPDC. United Nations development assistance framework Iraq 2011-2014. United Nations Country Team, Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation, 2010. 5.
- UN, OCHA. Iraq Strategic Response Plan 2014/2015. United Nation Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UN Country Team in Iraq, 2014. 6.
- Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs. Jordan KAP Study 1996, Women’s Questionnaire, JHU/PCS IEC Survey, 2002. 7.
- Mujumali N. Knowledge and attitude on prevention of mother to child transimission of HIV among pregnant women attending reproductive and child health clinic at Temeke District Hospital in Dar Es Salam, 2010. [Dissertation], Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania, 2011 Smits J, Steendijk R. The International Wealth Index (IWI). NiCE Working Paper 12-107. The Netherlands: Nijmegen, 2013. 9.
- UNFPA. Choices not Chance: UNFPA Family Planning Strategy 2012-2020. United Nations Population Fund, 2013 10.
- Mop, CSO, KRSO. Iraq Woman Integrated Social and Health Survey (I-WISH), Detailed Report. Baghdad, Iraq: Ministry of Planning, Central Statistical Organization, Kurdistan Regional Statistical Office, UNFPA, Pan Arab Population and Family Health Project, 2012 11.