Guidance Counseling Project Topics

An Investigation on Parental Involvement and on Child Academic Performance

An Investigation on Parental Involvement and on Child Academic Performance

An Investigation on Parental Involvement and on Child Academic Performance

Chapter One


The purpose of this study is to find out the influence parents involvement has on students’ academic performance in Nigeria, the specified objectives are:

  1. To find out if the  parents’ level of education has any influence with students’ academic performance
  2. To discover if  parents’ income influences the students’ academic performance
  3. To find out if communication between the teachers and the parents affect the students’ academic performance
  4. To establish how home environment affects the students’ academic performance




Theoretical Literature Review

Behaviorism theory of learning argues that a learner is positive, responding to environment stimulus, learning occurs when there is connection of stimulus, responses and reinforcements.

Stimulus is any stimulating event, act to arose action example in learning stimulus can be parents, guardians teachers, lecturers or other community members. Response is the result of learning.

Reinforcement stimulus that strengthen or weakness the behaviors that produced, reinforcement can be positive or negatives example sticks and rewards to students.

According to this theory, parents, guardians, teachers and community members have a great influence in changing the behavior of their children and also ensuring good performance in the children education. Means that learning can also occur through rewards and punishments.

Behaviourist Skinner (2011) described operant condition as the process in which learning can occur through reinforcement and punishment.

Behavior thoughts define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. Is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment.

 The Empirical Literature Review

Kothari (2004) defines literature review as a visiting or reviewing the works of researchers to know how far they went in research. Me stressed that the review of literature is critical in any research work because it enables the researcher to study different theories related to the identified topic and thus gain the clarity of the topics, it also enable the researcher to identify the kind of additional data needed to accomplish his research. A good literature review is critical organized and analytical in orientation.

 Reasons that make parents/guardians to have minimal involvement in their children education

The reasons that makes minimal parental contribution in their children education.

Parents have shown a reduction in involvement when they feel threatened as the school work becomes more advanced (Eccles, 1993: 44) research in Tanzania secondary schools indicates that contextual factors that hamper parents involvement in their children education are illiteracy, curriculum changes, lack of time; school climate, urbanization, health problems, economic factors, their attitude and the attitude of educators including management (Brown, 2007:32).

Parental involvement actually declines as students grow older (Stouffer, 1992:18). If parental involvement as so beneficial, why is not being used to a greater extent that at present there are many reasons from the perspective of parents and the school for the lack of involvement. One of the reasons concerns the lack of understanding of non – traditional families by the school system.

The non-traditional family is struggling to deal with many factors that affect every member of the family. These can definitely affect the way in which the family is able to be involved in the student’s education. More than likely, there is a shortage of time. Simply not enough hours in the day to accomplish everything. If there has been a divorce or death in the family, there has probably been a change in the financial standing of the family. By the school not being sensitive to this change, the student /family could be embarrassed. The very nature of the family structure is in a state of change, causing confusion and insecurity (Duncan, 1992:30). The parents may be doing the very best that they can to be involved.

Schools must understand, that lack of participation by parents does not necessarily mean, they are neglecting their responsibilities. Parents often do not feel welcomed at school. They feel that what they may have to offer is unimportant and unappreciated. Also parents may not believe that they have any knowledge that the school is interested in knowing. This is especially true when the parent may not have a great deal.

This is especially true when the parent may not have a great deal of education (Dixon 1992:23). It is also possible that parents do not have a great deal of interest in the education of their children. They may not feel that education is important.

Another reason for lack of parental involvement in embarrassment. The parents may be illiterate or unable to speak English. This could make communication difficult, if not impossible. Another source of embarrassment is memories of the parent’s failure in school. Such parents will not have much desire to return to a place that only served to remind them of their own failures (Brink and Chandler, 1993:56).

For many parents, a major impediment to becoming involved is lack of time. Working parents are often unable to attend school events during the day. In addition, evenings are the only time when parents can spend time with their children and they may choose to spend time with their family, rather than attend meetings at school for many apparently uninvolved parents, school was not a positive experience and they feel inadequate in a school settings. Parents may also feel uneasy if their cultural style or socio-economic level differs from that of teachers. (Greenberg, 1989:70) some parents who are uninvolved in school may not understand the importance of parental involvement or may think that they do not have the skills to be able to help, and there are even parents who hesitate to become involved for fear of over stepping their bonds. It is the responsibility of teachers and administrators to encourage such parents to become involved. Unsubstantial and awkward (Henry 1992:23), cited in Desforges and Abouchaar, 2003:46).






In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.


Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.


According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.

This study was carried to examine an investigation on parental involvement and on child academic performance.  Ajaokuta and Ankpa LGA of Kogi state form the population of the study.




This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.




It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain an investigation on parental involvement and on child academic performance. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing an investigation on parental involvement and on child academic performance


This study was on an investigation on parental involvement and on child academic performance. Four objectives were raised which included:  To find out if the  parents’ level of education has any influence with students’ academic performance, to discover if  parents’ income influences the students’ academic performance, to find out if communication between the teachers and the parents affect the students’ academic performance and to establish how home environment affects the students’ academic performance. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected  Ajaokuta and Ankpa LGA, Kogi state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).


From the findings of the study the researcher came up with three conclusions Firstly, this have been a big problem because a big number of parents and guardians are very busy with their own things they are not participating in  the education of their children. They only leave it in the hand of teachers; parental care is the best solution to problems of some learners because if parents or guardians are taking care of their children it will be good for them and they will perform well academically. Secondly, the government should asset  the sufficient funds to the education sectors so as to ensure all students in secondary schools get the best education with needed infrastructure example toilets, classrooms, offices for teachers and security. Thirdly parents should be empowered by the government instead of giving them money they should be empowered to manage their life and to work hard to overcome poverty.

Also there are should be a good relationship between teachers and parents in order to improve the academic achievements of students.


Students should ensure good relationship with their parents and guardians because this will give parents a heart to take part in their academic issues It is a good thing for students to be aware of their work is their responsibilities as students this also will attract good academic performance of students and it will by any means bring cooperation between parents and teachers.

Private study at home, parents should encourage their children to have time for private study when they are at home. Parents should act directly as education stakeholders by playing teachers role at home, parents should limit some of the things like television, telephones, radio and too much sports and games. This will enable students to realize their duties and study hard..

Teachers should participate fully in the implementation of school curriculum example private studies of students, sports and games all these do have contribution in learners academic performance.


  • Cooper, C.E & Crosner, R. (2007). Engagement schooling at economically disadvantaged parents and children. Austin: Sage Publication.
  • Desforges, C. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achieving and family education on pupil achievement and adjustment: A literature review. Queens Printer.
  • Dixon, A. (1992). Parents: Full partner in the decision-making process. NASSP. B 76(543). 15-18
  • George, H. (2016). Educational research methods: A practical guide. Mwanza, Tanzania: Mahelo Book Centre.
  • Harris, A. & Goodall, J. (2008). Educational research. London. Oxford University Press.
  • Hill, N.E., Castlino, O. R., Lansford, J. eg. Nowlin. E., Dodge, P., Bates, K. A & Pettit, G.S. (2004). Parents academic involvement as related to school behavior, achievement and aspirations: Demographic variations across adolescence. Child development, ol. 75. No 5. PP. 1491-1509.
  • Hinda, M. (2010). School family and community partnership: preparing educators and improving schools. Boulder, Co: Westview Press.
  • Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.


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