Appraising Instructional Materials as Being Used in Secondary Schools
Purpose of the Study
The objective of this study include to:
(1) examine whether instructional materials are fully used in the secondary schools.
(2) identify the various types of instructional materials used in school.
(3) verify the effective use of instructional materials in conceptional analysis as applied to teaching.
(4) determine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials has made or marred in secondary schools.
(5) find out the views of teachers regarding the use of instructional materials.
(6) examine factors affecting the use of instructional materials in school.
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Instructional materials
Instructional materials have been identified as very important variables in the teaching and learning and that effective learning cannot take place without availability of basic relevant instructional materials. Instructional materials according to Maitarfsir (2003), are the teaching aids that facilitate quick understand of the subject matter in the classroom. Instructional materials, including textbooks, educational media (library 12 media print, nonprint, and electronic resources), computer software, videotapes, films, DVDs, and instructional television programs represent fundamental resources for schools for enhancing instruction, furthering the pursuit of knowledge, and providing experiences of educational significance for class groups or for individual students. It is the shared responsibility of the state and district to provide an adequate number and range of instructional materials and resources in a variety of formats that are appropriate, timely, and essential to the attainment of specified educational objectives. It is also the responsibility of state and district to provide instructional materials that are free of bias, stereotypes, distortions, and prejudices. The importance of instructional materials cannot be underestimated. Instructional materials are a range of materials and equipment which make a visual impression on the students, assist the teacher in his task, helping him increase his effectiveness in the classroom. Instructional materials communicate information effectively, promote the acquisition and longer retention of knowledge, when they are systematically designed, reproduced, used and evaluated. Maitarfsir (2003), states that lack of instructional materials to serve as teaching aids that facilitate quick understand of the subject matter in the classroom is a great impediment to conducive learning environment for STM Education. He went further to put it that for effective STM learning relevant materials such as equipment in the laboratories, charts, diagrams, chemical, models, specimen, and for technology, technological device like computer, tape recorder and video cassette recorder must be made available in the classroom so as to assist students to have a design of what is taught in their mind. Various studies have shown that a proper use of teaching materials will positively enhance the teaching and learning process in science (Dale, 2003). Okebukola (2005), and Johnson (2001) also added that, various reasons have been adduced as major factors 13 among which is lack of necessary teaching materials/aids in schools as responsible for the observed poor trend on students performances for the SSCE for the period 2001 – 2005. (Ajewole 2001 and Ivowi 2001) and Futunbi (2003), put it that laboratory facilities and instructional performance materials to which students have been exposed have contributing factors to the student‟s academic achievement. Jimoh (2002), observed that poor laboratory facilities and lack of relevant textbooks are among factors that are responsible for low performance of students in physics, chemistry and Biology.
Need for instructional materials in teaching
The skill of producing local instructional materials is applicable to many different abilities across all academic and non–academic discipline. Teaching–learning may not easily be achieved through the mere use of verbal words. As such producing instructional materials becomes very necessary. The focus of teaching is on the natural reciprocating of comprehension and production in communication; on the functional and collaborative practice of language in flexible learning environment; and individual possession of skills. Students find it easy and joyful when learning with instructional materials as such, improvisation reveals that there are possibilities of alternatives to teaching and learning aids. It should therefore meet specific teaching and learning situation. Improvisation in economics has become imperative in teaching and learning because the economic situation makes the cost of facilities and equipment very high amidst decreasing or near lack of purchasing power (Adesoji, 2008). Therefore, the teacher education programme must integrate material development whereby teachers learn how to design and construct various materials and equipment which could be used for teaching-learning process (Edward, 2000). Improvisations of instructional materials in economics by teacher that are innovative in 14 concepts encourage students and teachers to be more creative, innovative and original. It also develops skills in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary schools. secondary schools in Abuja municipality in the Federal Capital Territory form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary schools”. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing an appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary schools”
This study was on appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary schools”. Three objectives were raised which included: examine whether instructional materials are fully used in the secondary schools, identify the various types of instructional materials used in school, verify the effective use of instructional materials in conceptional analysis as applied to teaching, determine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials has made or marred in secondary schools, find out the views of teachers regarding the use of instructional materials and examine factors affecting the use of instructional materials in school. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from secondary schools in Abuja municipality in the Federal Capital Territory. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
From the findings of the study, it can be concluded that availability of instructional materials have influence in teaching in senior secondary schools and that instructional materials have impact on students‟ academic performance in senior secondary schools. Also, based on the finding, it can be inferred that teachers use instructional materials in teaching in senior secondary schools
Adequate instructional materials for the teaching in senior secondary schools should be provided by the ministry of education and school management.
Teachers should improvise where instructional materials are not available to teach in the senior secondary schools.
Teacher education programme should integrate materials development whereby teachers learn how to design and construct various materials and equipment which could be used for teaching-learning process
- Abdullahi, T. (2004). Adolescent self-concept and relationship with academic achievement. A case study of secondary school students in Zaria M.Ed thesis, A.B.U, Zaria.
- Adegboye, A. O. (1979). The Influence of Parental Socio-Economic Factors on Students‟ Achievement in Mathematics, Nigeria Journal of Research in Education, F.C.E Kontagora, 1 (1) 175-179.
- Adepoju, T. L & Akinwumi, F. S. (2002). Location of Secondary Schools as a Factor in Determining Academic Performance of Students in Senior School Certificate Examination in Oyo State. Ibadan Journal of Educational Studies 2 (1).
- Adesina, S. (1998). Outcomes of Pre-service Teacher‟s Qualitative Research. Cleaning House, vol.74, Issue 3.
- Adesoji, Y. (2008). Teaching Resources in Education. Okitipapa: Ebun-ola Printers (Nig) Ltd.
- Adeyemi, J. I. (2007). Teachers Perception of the effects and uses of learning aids in teaching: A Case study of Winneba basic and secondary schools. (Electronic Version).
- Adeyemo, P.O. (2005). Principles and practice of Economics. Ado Ekiti: Omolayo Standard Press, Nigeria.
- Ajayi, Y.A. (2000). A guide for effective teaching. Lagos: IDEMAC Nigeria Ltd. Ajewole, G.A. (2001). Effect of Discovery and Expository Instructional Methods on Student in Biology, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(5) 401 – 409.
- Akande, S.A., & Azike, J.A. (2006). Fundamental Principles of Economics. Ibadan: Evans Brothers publishers Ltd.
- Akele, G. (2004). Selecting a Process for Evaluating Teacher Education Programs, Education, Vol. 111, Issue 1.
- American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials (2002). Arrange for Improvement of your Vocational Facilities. Columbus Ohio, The Centre for Vocational Education, Ohio State University.
- Andrew, B. & Michael, A. (2014). Innovative Ways to Teach Economics. Retrieved from www.ehow.com/list_7147776_teaching-methods-economics.html/
- Andrew, C., & Andrew, S. (2008). The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics, Oxford University Press; Ablex.
- Anene, A. O. (2002). The Influence of laboratory experiments on the performance of the Nigerian secondary school students. Journal of University of Nigeria Nsukka 12(5), 20-28.