Transportation Project Topics

Assessment of Adequacy of Traffic Signal Infrastructure in Akure Metropolis

Assessment of Adequacy of Traffic Signal Infrastructure in Akure Metropolis

Assessment of Adequacy of Traffic Signal Infrastructure in Akure Metropolis

Chapter One

Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to carry out an assessment of adequacy of traffic signal infrastructure in AKURE metropolis. This aim will be achieved through the following objectives which are to;

  1. Highlight the state of Traffic signal infrastructure in Akure, Ondo state.
  2. Characterize the types of Traffic signal infrastructure in Akure, Ondo state.
  3. Assess the functional standard of Traffic signal infrastructure in Akure, Ondo state
  4. Determine the distribution of Traffic signal infrastructure by senatorial zones in Akure, Ondo State




Infrastructure can be described as the fundamental basis or requirement of all the activities of an organized society in both social and economic dimension (Gungul, 2012). It is the basic physical and organization structure needed for the operation of a society and the economy. Infrastructure can be classified into social and economic types (WIR, 2008). Social infrastructure is made of basic facilities and ways of providing health services, quality education, job creation, social welfare and community development. Social infrastructure is regarded as the obligation of the government to the people in terms of social genuine delivery (WIR, 2008).  The aim of providing infrastructure is to improve the living standard of the people.

Economic infrastructure involves the internal facilities that support production and business activities.  The business dictionary defined economic infrastructure as internal facilities of the country that make business activities possible. These facilities are communication, transportation (rail, road, water and air), energy supply system (electricity and gas), distribution networks, financial institution and markets ( Amongst the economic infrastructure, are those referred to as critical infrastructure such as road, rail, energy etc. According to Rae (1968) the core industries facing infrastructure development problems in Nigeria are power, rail and road.  They are tagged as critical in the development strategies of the nation.  Without neglecting other infrastructure, they are challenging points for major economic activities in Nigeria.

Traffic signal infrastructure are critical infrastructure that their developments has direct bearing on the overall growth of the nation.  These infrastructures are the major tools of economic and strategic development.  Oni and Okanlawon (2008) observed traffic signal infrastructure as the major structure of components part of the transport system offering the provision of transport service and operation. Traffic signal infrastructure sector in Nigeria has suffered problems such as bad road, congested ports, inadequate fleet of vehicles, few and crowded trains and poor maintenance because of neglect from government.  In this study, the particular area of interest is road transportation infrastructure. State, types, functionality and distribution of such traffic signal infrastructure vis – a– vis the Krebs, Culverts, Camber (cross slope), Traffic Lights, Road Signs, Road Marking, Media, Shoulder, Zebra, Round about (intersections), Bridges, Overhead Bridge and Pedestrian Bridges.

1 Kerbs [Curbs]; A kerb is a vertical or sloping along edge of a pavement or shoulder forming part of the gutter. Strengthening or protecting the edge and clearly defining the edge of the vehicle operators. Its functions are:

  1. To facilitate and control drainage.
  2. To strengthen and protect the pavement edge. iii)To delineate the pavement edge.
  3. iv)To present a more finished appearance. To assist in the orderly development of the road side.





Akure is a city in the south-western region of Nigeria with coordinates: 7º15’0”N, 5º11’42”E. The city has a population of approximately 387,087. The people are of the Yoruba tribe. Akure is surrounded by extensive tracts of tropical forest reserves and supports a large timber industry. Akure is connected by road to other Nigerian cities such as Lagos and Ibadan. It also has an airport. It’s the site of Federal University of Technology Akure (founded in 1981). Akure is the tourist destination and departure point for visitors to the nearby Osse River. Fig 3.1

Physical Setting


Akure lies about 7°25’ north of the equator and 5°19’ east of the Meridian. It is about 700 km (430 mi) southwest of Abuja and 311 km (193 mi) north of Lagos State. Residential districts are of varying density, some area such as Arakale, Ayedun Quarters, Ijoka, and Oja-Oba consist of over 200 inhabitants per hectare (81/acre), while areas such as Ijapo Estate, Alagbaka Estate, Avenue and Idofin have between 60 and 100 inhabitants per hectare (24 and 40/acre). The town is situated in the tropic rainforest zone in Nigeria.

Agriculture and commerce

Akure has two television and eight radio stations: NTA Akure, Ondo State Television, Sunshine Radio Akure, Adaba FM, FUTA FM, Empire radio, Positive FM Akure, Orange FM, Galaxy Radio, Crest FM, and Breeze FM.

Akure is the trade center for a farming region where cocoa, yams, cassava, corn and tobacco are grown. Cotton is also grown and used to weave cloth. Grains like rice,beans, and millet are very common as they are the major sources of carbohydrate.




 Data collected from the field were analyzed and discussed in this chapter, using descriptive and inferential statistics, and parametric tests. The descriptive statistics include frequencies, percentages, pie charts and bar charts. The section analyzed and explained data collected from road users, road workers, and traffic law enforcement agents.

General Information on Respondents  

This sub section examines the name of political zone as well as types of respondents such as the road user, road workers and traffic law enforcement agents.

Distribution of Political Zones

Analysis of the respondents on general information shows on table 4.1 the zone with the numbers of returned questionnaires and spatial locations of the respondents. Zone 2 has the highest number of respondents at 39.5%, perhaps this might not be unconnected with the fact the zone has the highest population of over 2.7 million (NPC, 2006) and it‘s closely followed by zone 1 with 34.2% while zone 3 is last at 26.3%.



Summary of Major findings

In this study an attempt was made to undergo an assessment of adequacy of traffic signal infrastructure in Akure metropolis. In other for the research to be carried out, both primary and secondary data were used. Questionnaires were designed to elicit information from respondents about their socio economic characteristics as well as issues relating provision, growth and functionability of traffic signal infrastructures in Akure, Ondo state.

The study shows that the development and growth as well as the functionality and distribution of traffic signal infrastructures is a critical investment factor in the growth and perhaps the effective and efficient functioning of any society and urban and Akure, Ondo state is not excepted. The study focuses on how to assess traffic signal infrastructure development in Akure, Ondo state with specific interest in the state, types and functionality and distribution of such traffic signal infrastructure vis –a– vis the kerbs, culverts, camber (cross slope), traffic lights, road signs, road marking, media, shoulder, zebra, round about (intersections), bridges, overhead bridge and pedestrian bridges.

Investigation of the insights of respondents carried out from the 380 responses on the field shows that about 30.7% indicates that the state of traffic signal infrastructure in Akure, Ondo state is considerably fair, while 20.5% beliefs the state of road infrastructure is poor. However, a reasonable amount of the respondents of about 23.1% says it is good while 15.7% strongly indicate their opinion as being very poor state of traffic signal infrastructure, but, 10% of the respondents indicates that the state of road infrastructure  to be excellent.

Similarly, on the types of traffic signal infrastructure in Akure, Ondo state discloses that 87.4% of them representing 332 respondents attest to the presence of culverts while 12.6% of them says it is absent. But, 83.2% of the respondents‘ beliefs that there is presence of bridges while 16.8% of them attest to the absence of it. On the presence of roundabout (intersections) as an integral part of traffic signal infrastructure, 74.2% of the respondents says it is present while 25.8% says it is not present. Also, on the issue of zebra crossing, 20.8 percent of them says it is present while a significant 79.2% says it is not available.

In addition, the observations of the respondents on the functionality of traffic signal infrastructures in Akure, Ondo state reveals that 165 of the respondents indicates that  roundabout [intersections] are highly functional while 117 of them says it is fairly functional, but, 98 respondents indicates the absence of it. On the issue of the functionality of culverts as a critical traffic signal infrastructure 151 respondents affirms its high functionality while a sizeable number of them within 89 and 48 respondents indicates that it is not functioning and not present respectively. Further analysis of the results on the table shows 124 respondents indicating the high functionality of bridges as a traffic signal infrastructure while 81 respondents laments its non-functionality. Similarly, 113 respondents attest to the high functionality of road Kerbs, 64 indicates its fairness, while 29 and 174 attested to its non-functionality and non-availability respectively.

Furthermore, observation made by the researcher on the distribution of Road Infrastructure by zones indicate that, zone 1 has the highest well distributed road infrastructure, followed by zone 2 and 3 respectively.


Road infrastructure plays a crucial role in the socio-economic development of every country in that it ensures smooth movement from one point to another. However despite this crucial role, traffic signal infrastructures has been inadequate and poorly maintained especially in most cities of developing countries like Nigeria. It is obvious that this study have established similar condition in Akure, Ondo State. The study revealed uneven distribution across the zones in the provision of the various types of traffic signal infrastructures in Akure, Ondo State which Zone 3 was the most disadvantaged. There is therefore the need for proper planning and provision of road infrastructure development in Akure, Ondo State.


This research work has examined an assessment of traffic signal infrastructure development in Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. The study has also identified various components of traffic signal infrastructure necessary for the facilitation of effective and efficient movement of people and goods from one location to another within Akure, Ondo state which in turn could spring up further economic and developmental growth in other parts of the state. The following recommendations is hereby made with the hope of assisting the government on areas of sustaining and providing additional traffic signal infrastructure

Efforts should be made by the government of Akure, Ondo state to quantify the number of existing traffic signal infrastructures while also establishing state maintenance board to rehabilitate them urgently.

The government should diversify its objectives on provision of traffic signal infrastructures through partnership arrangements with private sectors on the public private partnership (PPP) to rehabilitate existing and construct new traffic signal infrastructures.

The government should also put action into plan for the future to provided alternative means of transport to reduce burden on the existing traffic signal infrastructures.

Government should introduce tolling systems on strategic traffic signal infrastructure to raise additional funds for maintenance dilapidated road structures.

Finally, there should be public sensitization on the proper use of various traffic signal infrastructures by Federal ministry of transport, so as to prolong its usage and economic value. Components such as zebra crossing, pedestrian bridges, kerbs, media and road marking including road signages should promptly provided and maintained.

Government should maintain a balance distribution of traffic signal infrastructure by zones in Akure, Ondo State.


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