Nursing Project Topics

Assessment of Breastfeeding on Working Mothers: a Systematic Review

Assessment of Breastfeeding on Working Mothers a Systematic Review

Assessment of Breastfeeding on Working Mothers: a Systematic Review


Human newborns thrive on breast milk. As a result of breastfeeding’s anti-infective properties, it decreases the risk of infection and infant death (Dinour and Szaro, 2017). A mother-infant relationship is formed by nursing, which aids in maternal role achievement (Dinour and Szaro, 2017).

Only breast milk should be used for at least four months and up to six months of a baby’s life for EBF, without the inclusion of any other food or drink. In the meanwhile, drops and syrup are used to provide vitamins, minerals, and other medications to the infant as needed (Abekah-Nkrumah et al., 2020). The World Health organization (WHO, 2017) recommended extending EBF to six months of life if desired. PBF, on the other hand, refers to nursing as the primary source of food for an infant’s development. In addition to breast milk, the newborn in this kind consumes water and water-based beverages (WHO, 2020). Complimentary breastfeeding (CBF) or mixed feeding is when a baby is fed mostly on formula from a factory, with breast milk supplemented on occasion (WHO, 2020).



Research design

A research method is a set of predetermined processes for collecting, gathering, analyzing and evaluating information for a particular project (Aurini et al., 2021). The design of a given study depends on the development of the research method. This section explains the study’s methodology and processes in great depth.

Qualitative method was the method adopted for this research. In line with the qualitative research method, this study used a complete systematic review as its research approach. All relevant research that can be identified, selected, and critically appraised is included in a systematic review. Research topics might be broad or specific, and systematic reviews find and synthesize data that is relevant to the subject (Hennink et al., 2020).

Source of data

This study employed the secondary source of data in collecting relevant research articles for analysis. The secondary source of data involves the collection of data through online databases, online repositories, the internet in general, lecture notes, eBooks, and so on (Kazdin, 2021). For the purpose of this study, five databases were used to search for articles. These databases included: Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, and SCOPUS.

Search Strategy

When conducting a complete systematic literature analysis of studies on the assessment of breastfeeding on working mothers, it was necessary to acquire and synthesize all relevant data. An initial review of the literature and group brainstorming sessions were used to come up with the study’s list of keywords.

Keyword and key phrases search were used to search for relevant journals. Identified keywords include “breastfeeding”, “exclusive breastfeeding”, “mothers”, “working mothers”, “breast milk” “lactation” “job incentives” and so on. After the identification of basic keywords, these basic keywords were organized into search strings, for example: [*breastfeeding* AND *working mothers* OR *Working class mothers*]. To get optimum result, key search phrases and sentences were performed, such as “the effect of breastfeeding on working class mothers”, “the effect of occupation on breastfeeding among working mothers”, “the influence of exclusive breastfeeding on working class mothers”, and “the relationship between jobs and breastfeeding among working mothers”.

Conclusion and recommendations


Breastfeeding mothers should not have to worry about being treated unfairly at work. Working mothers require explicit interventions and policies to help them. Maternity leave and breastfeeding-friendly workplaces should be available to all women, and these benefits should be supported with generous parental leave. Quality evaluation may reveal obstacles, but it is possible to emphasize that in order for workplaces to promote breastfeeding, women must know their rights and get training on practical issues such milk extraction and storage. In addition, they need suitable physical areas for the extraction and storage of breastmilk, as well as the assistance of supervisors and colleagues. Mothers, their managers/co-workers as well as their supervisors need to be educated on breastfeeding policies and practices, as well as how to use lactation spaces and pumping breaks, in order to create a supportive work environment where breastfeeding mothers can feel confident without fear of being stigmatized or discriminated against. Integrative intervention research and effect assessments should be conducted with a better methodological design compared to those described in the literature.


Studies should focus on adapting workplace breastfeeding treatments for various kinds and sizes of businesses, as well as on interventions for women in the informal sector, who are at higher risk for not having maternity leave coverage. There is also a need to think about whether or whether we should undertake workplace breastfeeding interventions through regulatory (i.e. laws or enforceable norms), market-based (such as deductions and subsidies) or voluntarily-driven (i.e. certification-based-based) policy instruments.


Firstly, we did not include grey literature and official reports, which are more likely to be descriptive than evaluative. For one thing, we did not include job satisfaction as an outcome since it would have been an extra outcome; yet we recognize that this is an important consideration for workplace breastfeeding treatments. As a result of these drawbacks, the current review provides important evidence about the need for more robust methodological designs (such as quasi-experimental and economic evaluations) and in describing the various ecological levels that need to be connected in designing effective interventions for breastfeeding working women.


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