Education Project Topics

Assessment of ICT Facilities in Teaching History a Comparative Study Between Public and Private Schools

Assessment of ICT Facilities in Teaching History a Comparative Study Between Public and Private Schools

Assessment of ICT Facilities in Teaching History a Comparative Study Between Public and Private Schools


Objective of the Study

This study aimed to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. To assess the extent of ICT integration in teaching history in public schools in Nigeria.
  2. To evaluate the extent of ICT integration in teaching history in private schools in Nigeria.
  3. To compare the utilization of ICT facilities in teaching history between public and private schools in Nigeria.



Conceptual Review

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integration in Education

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration in education refers to the incorporation of digital tools and resources into teaching and learning processes to enhance educational outcomes. In contemporary educational contexts, ICT plays a pivotal role in transforming traditional teaching methods and enriching learning experiences (Nwachukwu, 2021). With the advancement of technology, educational institutions are increasingly leveraging ICT to facilitate interactive and personalized learning environments that cater to diverse student needs and preferences.

ICT integration in education encompasses various tools and technologies, including computers, tablets, interactive whiteboards, educational software, and online learning platforms (Ogunode & Musa, 2020). These digital resources offer opportunities for innovative teaching approaches, such as blended learning, flipped classrooms, and personalized learning pathways (Memon et al., 2019). By integrating ICT into instructional practices, educators can engage students in active learning experiences that promote critical thinking, collaboration, and creativity.

Furthermore, ICT integration in education extends beyond the classroom, encompassing administrative processes, communication channels, and educational management systems (Nzare et al., 2020). Educational institutions utilize ICT to streamline administrative tasks, manage student records, communicate with stakeholders, and facilitate professional development opportunities for educators (Ogunode & Lawan, 2020). Additionally, ICT enables the implementation of data-driven decision-making processes that enhance institutional effectiveness and accountability.

The integration of ICT in education is guided by various frameworks and models that outline best practices for leveraging technology to support teaching and learning goals. One such framework is the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model, which emphasizes the intersection of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge for effective teaching with technology (Kegbusi & Adindu, 2022). The TPACK framework provides educators with a holistic approach to integrating ICT into their instructional practices while considering the unique needs of their students and subject matter.

Moreover, ICT integration in education is influenced by broader socio-economic factors, including access to technology, digital literacy levels, infrastructure development, and policy frameworks (Okechukwu & Oboschi, 2021). Disparities in access to ICT resources and infrastructure between urban and rural areas, as well as between socio-economic groups, can exacerbate existing inequalities in educational opportunities (Neji & Nuoha, 2021). Addressing these disparities requires concerted efforts from policymakers, educators, and stakeholders to ensure equitable access to ICT-enabled learning environments.

Despite the potential benefits of ICT integration in education, challenges exist in effectively implementing and sustaining technology-enhanced teaching and learning practices. Issues such as inadequate infrastructure, limited digital literacy skills among educators, resistance to change, and concerns about data privacy and security pose significant barriers to ICT adoption in educational settings (Manafa, 2022). Overcoming these challenges requires comprehensive strategies that address technological, pedagogical, organizational, and policy dimensions of ICT integration in education.

Historical Education

Historical education encompasses the teaching and learning of history, aiming to impart knowledge of past events, societies, cultures, and civilizations to students (Duke, 2020). It serves as a vital component of the curriculum, fostering critical thinking, analytical skills, and a deeper understanding of the complexities of human societies and interactions. Historical education is essential for cultivating informed citizens who can engage meaningfully with the present and contribute to shaping the future (Nnoli, 2021).





This chapter outlines the methodology employed in the research, elucidating the approach taken to achieve the study’s objectives effectively. It delineates the research design, population of the study, sampling technique, sources and methods of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability considerations, and ethical considerations guiding the research process.

Research Design

The research design adopted for this study was a quantitative survey research design. This choice was justified by the need to gather structured data from large sample size to explore the extent of ICT integration in historical education. The quantitative survey design facilitated the collection of numerical data, enabling statistical analysis to derive meaningful insights and draw valid conclusions.

Population of the Study

The target population for this study comprised educators involved in historical education programs across various educational institutions. The justification for selecting a population of 171 respondents stemmed from the need to ensure adequate representation across different demographics and educational settings, thus enhancing the generalizability of the study findings.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size

A simple random sampling technique was adopted to select the study participants. This technique ensured that every member of the population had an equal chance of being included in the sample, minimizing bias and enhancing the reliability of the study results. The determination of a sample size of 120 respondents was justified using the Taro Yamane sample size formula, considering the size of the target population and the desired level of precision in the study findings.



Data Presentation

The results indicate that 90% of the questionnaires were returned and completed, while 10% were not returned or left uncompleted. This high completion rate suggests a strong level of engagement and interest among participants in contributing to the study. The findings demonstrate a satisfactory response rate, ensuring a representative sample for analysis and enhancing the reliability of the study outcomes.


The results reveal a gender distribution where 5.6% of respondents were male and 94.4% were female. This suggests a significant gender disparity in the sample, with a notably higher representation of females. Such skewness may impact the generalizability of findings, particularly if gender-related factors influence the study variables. It’s essential to consider potential gender biases in interpretations and to explore whether gender-specific insights emerge from the analysis. Additional strategies may be needed to ensure gender balance in future research to enhance the comprehensiveness and validity of the study outcomes.



Summary of Findings

The study investigated the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching history across public and private schools in Nigeria, aiming to provide insights into current practices, challenges, and disparities. The findings offer a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of ICT integration in historical education and shed light on areas for improvement and policy interventions.

Overall, the study found that while both public and private schools recognize the importance of ICT in enhancing historical education, there are notable differences in the extent of integration and access to ICT resources between the two types of institutions. Private schools generally demonstrated higher levels of ICT integration, with a greater emphasis on the incorporation of multimedia and interactive technologies to enhance historical learning experiences. These schools also allocated more resources to ICT infrastructure and technology maintenance, indicating a strong commitment to leveraging ICT for educational purposes. In contrast, public schools faced challenges in ensuring equitable access to ICT resources among students, often constrained by limited funding and infrastructure constraints.

Furthermore, the study identified disparities in the utilization and accessibility of ICT facilities between public and private schools. While private schools were perceived to have better access to ICT facilities, public schools encountered difficulties in providing equal opportunities for students to access ICT resources. This discrepancy underscores the need for policy interventions aimed at promoting equity and inclusivity in ICT integration across all schools, regardless of their funding and status.

Moreover, the study revealed limitations in the theoretical frameworks applied to understanding ICT integration in historical education. Existing theories, such as Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and Social Learning Theory, provided valuable insights but fell short of capturing the complexities of ICT integration in the specific context of teaching history. This highlights the need for further theoretical development and refinement to better understand the dynamics of ICT integration in educational settings.

Additionally, the findings underscored the importance of ongoing empirical investigations into ICT integration and historical education outcomes. While the study provided valuable insights, there remains a need for more comprehensive research to explore the long-term effects of ICT integration on historical learning outcomes and student performance. Such research can inform evidence-based policies and practices aimed at optimizing the use of ICT resources to enhance historical education in Nigeria.

In summary, the study contributes to the growing body of literature on ICT integration in education by providing valuable insights into the current state of ICT integration in historical education in Nigeria. By highlighting disparities, challenges, and areas for improvement, the findings pave the way for informed policy interventions and practices aimed at promoting equitable access to quality education for all students. Moving forward, continued research and collaboration among stakeholders will be essential to drive meaningful change and ensure that ICT integration effectively supports historical education outcomes in Nigeria and beyond.


The findings from the hypotheses tested in this study provide valuable insights into the state of ICT integration in historical education across public and private schools in Nigeria. Firstly, the analysis revealed a significant difference in the extent of ICT integration between public and private schools, indicating that disparities exist in the adoption and utilization of ICT resources for teaching history. Private schools demonstrated higher levels of ICT integration compared to public schools, suggesting a need for targeted interventions to bridge this gap and promote equitable access to ICT resources among all students.

Secondly, the results supported the hypothesis that private schools exhibit higher levels of ICT integration in teaching history compared to public schools. This finding underscores the importance of considering factors such as funding, infrastructure, and institutional support in shaping the extent of ICT integration in educational settings. Public schools, often constrained by limited resources, may face challenges in fully leveraging ICT to enhance historical education outcomes, highlighting the need for tailored support and investment in infrastructure and training.

In conclusion, the findings underscore the importance of addressing disparities in ICT integration across public and private schools to ensure equitable access to quality education for all students. Policy interventions aimed at promoting equal opportunities for ICT integration and providing adequate support and resources for educators are crucial steps toward achieving this goal. Additionally, further research is needed to explore the long-term effects of ICT integration on historical education outcomes and student performance, as well as to develop more robust theoretical frameworks that capture the complexities of ICT integration in educational settings. Ultimately, by leveraging ICT effectively, educational institutions can enhance historical education outcomes and prepare students for success in the digital age.


Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from this study, the following recommendations are proposed:

  1. Investment in Infrastructure: The government and relevant stakeholders should prioritize investment in ICT infrastructure in public schools to ensure adequate access to technology and resources for teaching history. This includes providing reliable internet connectivity, computers, multimedia equipment, and other essential ICT tools.
  2. Teacher Training Programs: Implement comprehensive training programs for educators in both public and private schools to enhance their ICT skills and competencies. These programs should focus on the effective integration of ICT tools into history instruction, pedagogical strategies, and utilizing multimedia resources for engaging historical education.
  3. Equitable Resource Allocation: Ensure equitable allocation of resources between public and private schools to bridge the gap in ICT integration. This may involve reallocating funds or providing additional support to public schools to improve access to technology and training opportunities for teachers.
  4. Curriculum Revision: Review and update the history curriculum to incorporate ICT-based learning activities and resources. Emphasize the use of multimedia presentations, virtual field trips, interactive simulations, and online databases to enhance student engagement and understanding of historical concepts.
  5. Policy Development: Develop and implement policies that promote the integration of ICT in education and address disparities between public and private schools. This includes establishing guidelines for ICT integration, monitoring progress, and providing incentives for schools that demonstrate exemplary practices in ICT integration.
  6. Collaborative Partnerships: Foster collaboration between educational institutions, government agencies, private organizations, and community stakeholders to support ICT integration initiatives. Engage in partnerships to secure funding, access resources, and share best practices in ICT integration for historical education.
  7. Research and Evaluation: Encourage further research and evaluation studies to monitor the effectiveness of ICT integration initiatives and identify areas for improvement. Conduct longitudinal studies to assess the long-term impact of ICT integration on historical education outcomes and student achievement.
  8. Continuous Professional Development: Offer ongoing professional development opportunities for educators to stay updated on emerging ICT trends, pedagogical approaches, and best practices in historical education. Encourage collaboration, peer learning, and sharing of experiences among teachers to enhance ICT integration efforts.

Limitations of the Study

Despite the comprehensive nature of this study, several limitations should be acknowledged. Firstly, the research design focused primarily on quantitative methods, which may have limited the depth of understanding of participants’ perspectives and experiences. While quantitative surveys provide valuable statistical data, they may overlook nuanced insights that could be captured through qualitative approaches such as interviews or focus groups. Additionally, the study relied on self-reported data from respondents, which might introduce response bias or inaccuracies due to social desirability or recall errors. Future research could benefit from employing a mixed-methods approach to triangulate findings and provide a more holistic understanding of ICT integration in historical education.

Furthermore, the study’s scope was confined to specific geographic regions or types of schools within Nigeria, which may limit the generalizability of the findings to other contexts. Variations in educational policies, resource availability, and socio-economic factors across different regions or countries could impact the extent and effectiveness of ICT integration in historical education. Therefore, caution should be exercised when extrapolating the results of this study to broader populations or contexts. Future research endeavours could consider expanding the scope to include a more diverse range of schools and regions to capture a comprehensive picture of ICT integration in historical education.


  • Achor, J., & Ityobee, A. (2020). Assessment of Availability of ICT Facilities for Basic Science Teaching and Learning in Upper Basic Schools in Benue State. Journal of Research in Curriculum and Teaching, 12(1), 1-10.
  • Aina, J. K. (2021). Effective Teaching and Learning in Science Education through Information and Communication Technology [ICT]. IOSR Journal of Research and Method in Education, 2, 43-47.
  • Basri, W. S., Alandejani, J. A., & Almadani, F. M. (2022). ICT adoption impact on students’ academic performance: Evidence from Saudi universities. Education Research International, 2018, 1-9.
  • Beiske, B. (2017). Research Methods: Uses and Limitations of questionnaires, interviews and case studies. GRIN Verlag.
  • Bell, E. (2022). Business research methods. Oxford University Press.
  • Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2019). Business Research Methods (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G. W. (2019). Analysing qualitative data: Systematic approaches. SAGE Publications.
  • Charan, J., & Biswas, T. (2019). How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research? Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35(2), 121–126.
  • Charmaz, K. (2016). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. Sage Publications.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (5th ed.). SAGE.
  • Duke, H. (2020). Information and communication technology facilities and services. Retrieved from On 23rd/02/2019.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!