Health Education Project Topics

Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Menstrual Health and Hygiene Among Adolescent School Girls in Ede

Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Menstrual Health and Hygiene Among Adolescent School Girls in Ede

Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Menstrual Health and Hygiene Among Adolescent School Girls in Ede


Objectives of the Study

This study aimed to achieve three specific objectives:

  1. To assess the level of knowledge regarding menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede.
  2. To examine the current practices related to menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede.
  3. To identify the factors influencing knowledge and practices of menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede.



Conceptual Review

Menstrual Health and Hygiene

Menstrual health and hygiene constitute a crucial aspect of the overall well-being of adolescent girls, encompassing a range of physiological, social, and psychological dimensions. Defined as the state of physical and emotional well-being in relation to the menstrual cycle, menstrual health involves not only the biological aspects but also the broader context of hygiene practices and social perceptions surrounding menstruation (Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council and Government of India, 2021).

The components of menstrual health are multifaceted, involving an understanding of the biological processes of menstruation, hygiene practices during the menstrual cycle, and the broader socio-cultural context in which these processes unfold (Stang & Story, 2021; WHO, 2012). Biological components include knowledge of menstrual cycle regularity, duration, and associated physiological changes, while hygiene practices encompass the use of sanitary products, cleanliness, and proper disposal methods (Stang & Story, 2021; Wateraid, 2019).

The importance of menstrual health in adolescent well-being cannot be overstated. Menstruation is a natural and integral part of the female reproductive system, marking the transition from childhood to womanhood. Adequate knowledge and positive practices related to menstrual health contribute to the overall physical health of adolescent girls, preventing reproductive health issues and infections (Garba et al., 2018; Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council and Government of India, 2021). Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of menstrual health positively influences mental and emotional well-being, fostering a sense of empowerment and dignity among adolescent girls (Adika et al., 2021; Wateraid, 2019).

In the context of Nigeria, where cultural taboos often shroud menstruation, addressing menstrual health and hygiene is particularly crucial. Lack of awareness and misconceptions can negatively impact the self-esteem and health of adolescent girls (Adika et al., 2021). Therefore, comprehensive education and promotion of positive menstrual health practices are vital for the holistic well-being of adolescents in Nigeria, contributing to their empowerment and laying the foundation for a healthier future (Abioye-Kuteyi, 2021; Wateraid, 2019).




Introduction Research

This chapter outlines the research design, population, sampling technique, sample size, sources and methods of data collection, data analysis, and ethical considerations employed in the assessment of knowledge and practice of menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede. The methodology selected for this study aligns with a quantitative survey research design, chosen for its ability to efficiently gather information from a large population (Saunders et al., 2019). The justification for adopting this design is rooted in its suitability for investigating the knowledge and practices of menstrual health among a considerable number of adolescent girls in the target area.

Research Design

For this study, the adoption of a quantitative survey research design was deemed appropriate, as emphasized by scholars such as Saunders et al. (2019). This design was chosen to systematically collect structured data from a considerable number of respondents, allowing for a comprehensive analysis of the knowledge and practices related to menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede. The utilization of a quantitative approach facilitates the generation of numerical data, enabling statistical analyses to uncover patterns, trends, and associations within the dataset.

The chosen research design holds a distinct advantage in its ability to provide a structured framework for data collection, as outlined by Saunders et al. (2019). The survey’s structured nature allows for the formulation of clear and concise questions, ensuring a standardized approach to gathering information from the respondents. This methodological precision is crucial in maintaining consistency and reducing ambiguity in the responses received. By employing a structured survey, the study aims to capture a snapshot of the prevailing trends and issues surrounding menstrual health in the target population of adolescent school girls in Ede.

The structured survey design aligns with the nature of the research objectives, emphasizing the importance of systematically exploring the knowledge and practices of menstrual health among the study participants. As stressed by Saunders et al. (2019), this approach enhances the reliability of the study by providing a clear framework for data collection, minimizing the potential for biases or misinterpretations. Therefore, the selection of a quantitative survey research design is strategic in achieving the study’s goals, ensuring a robust and methodologically sound investigation into menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede.



Data Presentation



Summary of Findings

The study aimed to comprehensively assess the knowledge and practices of menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede, Nigeria, and explore the factors influencing these aspects. The findings, derived from a quantitative survey involving 120 respondents, provide valuable insights into the current state of menstrual health awareness and practices in the community.

The demographic profile of the respondents, as presented in Tables 4.2 to 4.4, revealed that the majority were females (55.8%), aged 15-17 (86.5%), and distributed across various classes in both Junior and Senior Secondary Schools. This demographic distribution ensures a diverse representation, capturing the perspectives of adolescent girls at different stages of their educational journey.

The respondents generally demonstrated a favorable level of knowledge about menstrual health, as evidenced by the results in Table 4.5. A significant proportion (67.3%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they were well-informed about the biological aspects of menstruation. This suggests a baseline awareness among the adolescent girls in Ede, indicating a positive foundation for further education and intervention.

In Table 4.6, where respondents expressed their understanding of the importance of maintaining good menstrual hygiene practices, a substantial majority (73.1%) either agreed or strongly agreed. This finding is crucial, as it indicates that the participants recognize the significance of hygiene in managing menstruation, contributing to their overall well-being.

Table 4.7 explored the awareness of various menstrual hygiene products and their proper usage. A considerable proportion (68.3%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they were aware of these products. This awareness is fundamental for ensuring that girls have access to and can make informed choices about the products suitable for their needs.

Discussing menstrual health-related issues appeared to be relatively comfortable for the respondents, as revealed in Table 4.8. A majority (77.9%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt comfortable discussing such issues with peers and adults. This openness is essential for creating a supportive environment that encourages dialogue and education around menstrual health.

Proper disposal of menstrual waste is a critical aspect of hygiene, and the findings in Table 4.9 indicate positive practices among the respondents. A significant majority (67.3%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they consistently practice proper disposal of menstrual waste, contributing to environmental and personal hygiene.

Access to and regular use of sanitary products during the menstrual cycle is fundamental for managing menstruation effectively. In Table 4.10, the majority (76.0%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they have access to and regularly use sanitary products. However, the presence of respondents (20.2%) who were uncertain or disagreed suggests potential gaps in accessibility that need attention.

Hand hygiene practices during and after changing menstrual products were explored in Table 4.11. The findings indicate positive practices, with a substantial majority (70.2%) either agreeing or strongly agreeing that they follow proper hand hygiene practices. This is crucial for preventing infections and maintaining overall health.

Maintaining overall cleanliness during menstruation is an integral part of menstrual health practices, and Table 4.12 suggests positive attitudes among the respondents. A significant majority (72.1%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they are conscious of maintaining overall cleanliness during menstruation.

Tables 4.13 to 4.16 delved into the factors influencing menstrual health and hygiene practices. The findings indicate that the respondents recognize the impact of socio-economic factors, cultural beliefs, and the availability and affordability of menstrual products on their practices. Moreover, education and awareness programs were perceived as positively influencing menstrual health practices, emphasizing the potential of targeted interventions.

The one-sample statistics in Table 4.17 provide mean scores for the level of knowledge regarding menstrual health and hygiene, current practices, and the factors influencing knowledge and practices. The mean scores of 73.00, 66.00, and 89.75, respectively, suggest an overall positive perception among the respondents. The relatively high mean scores indicate a favorable outlook on menstrual health and hygiene, showcasing a solid foundation for further improvements and interventions.


In conclusion, the findings derived from the hypotheses testing provide valuable insights into the factors influencing menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede, Nigeria. The results of the one-sample t-test enabled the examination of three critical associations within the study context.

Firstly, the educational level was found to have a significant association with knowledge of menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede. The results indicate that educational interventions may play a pivotal role in enhancing awareness and understanding of menstrual health among this demographic.

Secondly, the availability of menstrual hygiene facilities was positively correlated with proper practices among adolescent school girls in Ede. This underscores the importance of providing adequate facilities to support and promote hygienic practices during menstruation.

Thirdly, cultural beliefs were found to significantly impact the knowledge and practices of menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls in Ede. This highlights the need for culturally sensitive and context-specific interventions that address prevailing beliefs and promote open discussions around menstrual health.


  1. Comprehensive Menstrual Health Education Programs: Implement and sustain comprehensive menstrual health education programs in schools within the Ede community. These programs should cover biological aspects, hygiene practices, and address socio-cultural dimensions, fostering a holistic understanding of menstruation among adolescent school girls.
  2. Access to Menstrual Hygiene Facilities: Improve and maintain facilities that support proper menstrual hygiene in schools. This includes providing adequate and clean restroom facilities, as well as ensuring the availability of water and sanitation facilities for girls to manage their menstrual hygiene comfortably.
  3. Cultural Sensitivity Training: Conduct training programs for educators and healthcare professionals that address cultural sensitivities related to menstruation. This training should equip them with the skills to navigate discussions on menstrual health with cultural awareness and respect for diverse beliefs.
  4. Community Engagement and Awareness Campaigns: Develop and implement community-wide awareness campaigns to debunk myths and misconceptions surrounding menstruation. These campaigns should involve community leaders, parents, and other stakeholders to create an enabling environment for open discussions about menstrual health.
  5. Affordability and Accessibility of Menstrual Products: Collaborate with relevant stakeholders to ensure the affordability and accessibility of menstrual hygiene products within the Ede community. This may involve subsidizing or providing free menstrual products to economically disadvantaged girls.
  6. Peer-to-Peer Support Programs: Establish peer-to-peer support programs within schools to create a supportive environment for girls to discuss and share experiences related to menstrual health. This can help reduce stigma and foster a sense of community among adolescent girls.
  7. Integration of Menstrual Health in School Curricula: Advocate for the integration of menstrual health education into the school curricula, ensuring that it becomes a regular and normalized part of the learning experience. This integration can contribute to sustained awareness and understanding over time.
  8. Collaboration with Healthcare Professionals: Strengthen collaboration between educational institutions and healthcare professionals to provide regular health check-ups and consultations for adolescent girls. This can contribute to early detection and management of menstrual health issues while promoting a culture of overall well-being.

Contribution to Knowledge

This study significantly contributes to the existing knowledge on menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent school girls, particularly within the context of Ede, Nigeria. Firstly, the research sheds light on the specific challenges faced by adolescent girls in the Ede community, emphasizing the need for localized interventions. By focusing on the unique socio-cultural and economic factors prevalent in this region, the study offers nuanced insights that can guide targeted policies and programs tailored to the community’s distinct needs.

Secondly, the findings contribute to the broader discourse on the importance of cultural sensitivity in menstrual health education. The study underscores the impact of cultural beliefs on open discussions and education about menstrual health. This nuanced understanding can inform future educational initiatives not only in Ede but also in similar cultural contexts globally. Recognizing the influence of cultural taboos is crucial for designing effective strategies that resonate with the local population and foster positive attitudes toward menstrual health.

Furthermore, the research extends knowledge on the interplay between socio-economic factors and menstrual hygiene practices. The study’s exploration of how socio-economic factors significantly impact access to menstrual hygiene products provides valuable insights for policymakers and NGOs working to address health disparities. Understanding these dynamics is pivotal for designing interventions that ensure equitable access to menstrual hygiene resources, contributing to a more inclusive and just approach to adolescent well-being.

Lastly, the study’s use of a mixed-methods approach, including quantitative surveys and qualitative insights, contributes to the methodological diversity in menstrual health research. This comprehensive research design allows for a more holistic understanding of the subject, capturing both the quantitative prevalence of certain practices and the qualitative nuances of individual experiences. This methodological richness enhances the reliability and applicability of the study’s findings, setting a precedent for future research endeavors in the field of menstrual health and hygiene.


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