Education Project Topics

Assessment of Parental Involvement in the Academic Performance of Children With Special Needs in Benin City

Assessment of Parental Involvement in the Academic Performance of Children With Special Needs in Benin City

Assessment of Parental Involvement in the Academic Performance of Children With Special Needs in Benin City

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To assess the level of parental involvement in the academic lives of children with special needs in Benin City.
  2. To examine the academic performance of children with special needs about the extent of parental involvement.
  3. To identify factors that facilitate or hinder parental involvement in the education of children with special needs in Benin City.



Conceptual Review

 Parental Involvement in Education: Definition and Dimensions

Parental involvement in education is a multifaceted concept that plays a pivotal role in shaping a child’s academic journey (Fernández-Alonso et al., 2017). Defined as the active participation of parents in the educational processes and experiences of their children, it encompasses various dimensions that extend beyond mere attendance at school events (Castro et al., 2021). At its core, parental involvement reflects a commitment to fostering a collaborative partnership between parents and educators, aiming to enhance the overall learning environment for the child.

This involvement manifests across several dimensions, each contributing uniquely to the educational landscape. Firstly, academic involvement involves parents actively engaging in their child’s learning endeavours, including assisting with homework, attending parent-teacher conferences, and participating in school-related activities (Arens & Jude, 2017). This dimension emphasizes the direct contribution of parents to their child’s academic development, fostering a supportive home environment that complements classroom learning.

Communication is another integral facet of parental involvement, emphasizing the importance of effective and open channels between parents and educators (Franca et al., 2022). Regular communication ensures that parents are informed about their child’s progress, challenges, and achievements. This dimension goes beyond traditional parent-teacher meetings, incorporating modern means of communication, such as online platforms, to facilitate real-time updates and collaboration (Dong et al., 2020).

Volunteering represents a hands-on approach to parental involvement, where parents actively contribute their time and skills within the school community (Dziuban et al., 2018). This may involve participating in classroom activities, organizing events, or providing support in extracurricular programs. Volunteering not only enriches the educational experience for the child but also fosters a sense of community within the school.

The forms of parental involvement are dynamic and can vary significantly across different educational settings. Cultural and contextual factors influence how parents engage with their children’s education (Zhang et al., 2020). In Benin City, where cultural diversity is prevalent, these dimensions of involvement may take on unique characteristics. For instance, cultural norms and expectations may shape the extent to which parents are involved in academic activities or the methods through which they communicate with educators (Kraaykamp & Eijck, 2021). Understanding these varied approaches is crucial for educators in Benin City to create inclusive strategies that resonate with the diverse backgrounds of their students.

 Academic Performance of Children with Special Needs:

Special needs in education refer to the diverse requirements of students who face challenges that impede their ability to learn in conventional educational settings (Spinelli et al., 2020). These challenges can stem from physical, cognitive, sensory, or behavioural differences, requiring modifications to the educational approach to ensure equitable learning opportunities. The term encompasses a wide range of conditions, including but not limited to, learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and physical disabilities (Abuhammad et al., 2020).

Unique Educational Requirements and Challenges

The educational requirements of children with special needs are distinctive, demanding tailored strategies and resources to address their diverse needs (Becker et al., 2020). Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are often employed to delineate specific goals, accommodations, and support services tailored to each student’s unique requirements (Franca et al., 2019). Challenges in special education may arise from the need for specialized teaching methods, assistive technologies, and additional support staff. In Benin City, where the inclusivity of special needs education is of growing importance, understanding these unique requirements is crucial for educators and policymakers to create an environment that fosters the optimal development of these students (Basilaia & Kvavadze, 2020).

Factors Affecting Academic Performance

Several factors influence the academic performance of children with special needs. One critical factor is the level of parental involvement, which has been shown to significantly impact the educational outcomes of these students (Stavridou et al., 2020). Additionally, the availability and effectiveness of support services, including special education teachers and therapists, play a vital role (Franca et al., 2022). The degree of inclusion within mainstream classrooms, social acceptance, and the understanding of classmates also contribute to the academic experience of children with special needs (Moroni et al., 2015).





The methodology employed in this study aims to rigorously investigate the research objectives outlined in Chapter One. Drawing on various research philosophies and approaches to theory development, the research design aligns with the positivist paradigm, employing a quantitative survey research design to gather structured data from a sizeable sample. This chapter discusses the research design, population, sampling technique, sample size, data sources and collection methods, data analysis approach, and the measures taken to ensure validity and reliability. Ethical considerations are also outlined to ensure the study adheres to ethical standards.

Research Design

The choice of a quantitative survey research design is justified by the need to collect numerical data that can be statistically analyzed to draw generalizable conclusions. This approach aligns with the positivist philosophy, emphasizing objectivity and the ability to test hypotheses empirically (Saunders et al., 2019). A survey allows for the efficient collection of data from a large number of respondents within a specific timeframe, enabling the researcher to explore relationships between variables and test hypotheses systematically (Bell et al., 2019). This design ensures a structured and standardized approach to data collection, facilitating the comparison of responses and statistical analysis.

The rationale behind opting for a quantitative survey research design is underpinned by the imperative to gather numerical data suitable for statistical analysis, thereby enabling the derivation of generalizable conclusions. This choice is explicitly aligned with the positivist philosophy, a paradigm emphasizing objectivity and the empirical testing of hypotheses (Saunders et al., 2019). The survey methodology proves instrumental in efficiently accumulating data from a substantial number of respondents within a specified timeframe, allowing for the systematic exploration of relationships between variables and the empirical testing of hypotheses (Bell et al., 2019). The design’s structured and standardized nature facilitates the meticulous collection of data, enabling the orderly comparison of responses and the application of robust statistical analyses.

The quantitative survey design affords several advantages in the context of this research. Firstly, it provides a clear framework for systematically gathering information from a large sample, enhancing the study’s external validity and generalizability (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). By adhering to standardized survey instruments, the research ensures consistency in data collection, contributing to the reliability of the findings (Bell et al., 2019). Furthermore, the emphasis on numerical data enables the application of statistical methods, allowing for the identification of patterns, relationships, and statistical significance (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). This approach enhances the precision and rigour of the study, aligning with the overarching objective of deriving objective, empirical insights into the phenomena under investigation.

Population of the Study

The target population for this study comprises individuals who possess relevant insights into the phenomenon under investigation. In line with the research objectives, the population is defined as [justify the target population of 1200 respondents]. This selection ensures that the sample adequately represents the population, enhancing the generalizability of the findings to the broader context (Saunders et al., 2016). The inclusion criteria for the population are [specify inclusion criteria, e.g., professionals with experience in the industry



Data Presentations




Summary of Findings

The comprehensive analysis of findings from the various tables in this study sheds light on the intricate dynamics of parental involvement in the academic lives of children with special needs in Benin City. The research aimed to explore the extent of parental engagement, its correlation with academic performance, influential factors, challenges, and the role of schools and societal factors.

Tables 4.5 to 4.8 primarily focused on the extent of parental involvement. The results indicate a generally positive trend, with a significant proportion of respondents expressing agreement or strong agreement regarding parents actively participating in helping with homework, attending parent-teacher meetings, engaging in discussions with teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities. These findings underscore the active role parents play in various facets of their children’s educational journey.

Tables 4.9 to 4.12 delved into the correlation between parental involvement and academic outcomes. The overwhelming agreement among respondents on the positive impact of parental involvement on academic success, better performance, improved achievements, and overall learning experience is noteworthy. This aligns with existing literature emphasizing the crucial role parents play in shaping the academic trajectories of children with special needs.

Moving on to Tables 4.13 to 4.16, the research explored factors that either facilitate or hinder parental involvement, the challenges faced by parents, the role of schools, and the influence of societal or cultural factors. The results reveal a nuanced landscape. While there is substantial agreement on the positive impact of effective communication and support from schools, there is an acknowledgement of challenges, including lack of time and resources, hindering parental engagement. The findings underscore the need for a holistic approach that addresses barriers and leverages school support to enhance parental involvement.

The final section, Table 4.17, employed a one-sample t-test to examine assumed means regarding the level of parental involvement, the correlation between parental involvement and academic performance, and the influence of socioeconomic factors. The results indicate a statistically significant positive correlation between parental involvement and academic performance, affirming the vital role parents play in fostering better educational outcomes. Additionally, societal or cultural factors were found to significantly influence parental involvement, emphasizing the importance of considering cultural dynamics in educational practices.

In summary, the findings collectively emphasize the multifaceted nature of parental involvement in the education of children with special needs in Benin City. Parents are actively engaged in various aspects of their children’s academic journey, and this involvement positively correlates with improved academic outcomes. However, challenges such as time constraints and the need for effective communication channels persist. The pivotal role of schools in providing support and fostering a conducive environment for parental engagement is underscored, along with the need to consider cultural factors. These insights contribute to a richer understanding of the complexities surrounding parental involvement in the context of special needs education, offering valuable implications for educators, policymakers, and parents alike.


The hypotheses tested in this study provide compelling insights into the nature of parental involvement in the academic lives of children with special needs in Benin City. The results reject the null hypotheses, indicating a positive correlation between the level of parental involvement and the academic performance of children with special needs. This emphasizes the pivotal role parents play in shaping the educational outcomes of their children in this context. Furthermore, the findings reject the null hypothesis related to the influence of socioeconomic factors on parental involvement, highlighting that societal and cultural factors significantly impact the extent of parental engagement.

In conclusion, this study reinforces the importance of recognizing and fostering parental involvement in the education of children with special needs. It underscores the need for educational institutions and policymakers to implement strategies that support and enhance parental engagement, considering the broader societal and cultural context. By acknowledging the positive correlation between parental involvement and academic success, stakeholders can work collaboratively to create an inclusive educational environment that empowers both parents and children in navigating the challenges associated with special needs education.


The following recommendations were proposed for this study:

  1. Enhance Parental Education Programs: Develop and implement educational programs aimed at enhancing parents’ understanding of special needs education, effective communication strategies with educators, and ways to actively engage in their children’s academic lives.
  2. Establish Support Networks: Create support networks for parents of children with special needs, fostering a sense of community and providing a platform for sharing experiences, challenges, and successful strategies for supporting their children’s education.
  3. Cultural Sensitivity Training: Provide cultural sensitivity training for educators and school staff to better understand and address the diverse cultural dynamics influencing parental involvement in Benin City, fostering a more inclusive and culturally competent educational environment.
  4. Promote Two-Way Communication: Encourage regular and open communication between parents and educators through various channels, such as meetings, digital platforms, and newsletters, to ensure a continuous exchange of information regarding students’ progress, goals, and challenges.
  5. Implement Flexible School Policies: Develop school policies that acknowledge and accommodate the diverse socioeconomic backgrounds of families, ensuring that educational initiatives and expectations are adaptable to various family circumstances.
  6. Integrate Technology for Inclusive Learning: Leverage technology to enhance parental involvement, providing digital platforms for parents to access information, participate in virtual meetings, and engage in their child’s learning experiences, particularly considering the impact of online learning.
  7. Teacher-Parent Collaboration Training: Offer training for educators on effective strategies for collaborating with parents, emphasizing the importance of involving parents in decision-making processes and goal-setting for their children’s education.
  8. Research on Cultural Influences: Promote further research to explore in-depth the cultural influences on parental involvement in Benin City, identifying specific cultural factors and dynamics that impact engagement, to inform targeted interventions and support mechanisms.

 Contribution to Knowledge

This study contributes significantly to the existing knowledge base by shedding light on the intricate relationship between parental involvement and the academic success of children with special needs in Benin City. The research provides a nuanced understanding of the multifaceted nature of parental engagement, exploring various dimensions such as academic support, communication, attendance at school events, and participation in extracurricular activities. By systematically investigating these aspects, the study deepens our insights into the specific challenges and opportunities faced by parents in supporting the education of their children with special needs in the context of Benin City.

Furthermore, the findings of this research contribute to the broader field of special education by highlighting the role of cultural dynamics and socioeconomic factors in shaping parental involvement. The emphasis on cultural competence and the recognition of diverse family backgrounds within Benin City underscores the need for tailored approaches in educational practices. This not only enriches our understanding of the unique challenges faced by families but also informs the development of more inclusive and culturally sensitive policies and interventions. As such, this study serves as a valuable resource for educators, policymakers, and researchers striving to enhance the educational experiences and outcomes of children with special needs, particularly in culturally diverse settings like Benin City.


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