Assessment of Strategies for the Management of Teachers’ Behaviour for Effective Role Performance in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State
Objective of the Study
The main objective of this research is to Assess the Strategies for the Management of Teachers’ Behaviour for Effective Role Performance in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State, the specific objectives are:
- To examine the function of teacher behaviour in classroom management.
- To identify the effectiveness of classroom management on student achievement in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State.
- To find out how classroom management influence development setting in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State.
- To identify the problem militating against classroom management in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter deals with the review of studies, related to the present study. The review was done under the following headlines.
Concept of Classroom
The classroom is a critical part of schools environment. It is where instruction is coordinated and facilitated to achieve school objectives and goals of education in general. Classroom has been defined in different ways by many authors, all pointing at the same direction. A class has been defined as a group of student of varying age range and level of intelligence from different socio economic status who are taught together in a particular place (Oboegbulem, 2011). A classroom is just a place or geographical space where any activity such as education can be carried out.
The education activity can only be achieved if there is meaningful instruction in the classroom. According to Ezeocha (2009), classroom is a room where students of different characteristics are taught for the purpose of proper organization and effective classroom management. In his own view, Akubue (2011) described classroom as one important place in the operation of a school which holds students together and offers them the opportunity of achieving the purpose of education. Similarly, Ogbonna (2008) upheld that a classroom is a geographical space occupied by a group of learners of similar characteristics. The similar characteristics can be age, sex, colour, physique, level of intelligence, among others. In any instructional activity of schools, the classroom plays a very vital role. This is because the greater aspect of instructional activity of schools usually takes place in a classroom and classroom holds students together and offers them the opportunity for group effort and interaction.
Classroom provides opportunity for educational plans to be carried out and research findings tested and tried out. The classroom is a place where curriculum is co-ordinated and various types of instructional efforts are assembled. According to Akintunde (2014), classroom is the builder of tomorrow’s consciousness where teachers who are motivational coaches empower learners with sacred intrinsic and fundamental values in the process of social engineering.
Classroom provides opportunity and environment for trained professional and competent teachers to exercise authority and control over instruction through utilizing knowledge, patience, self confidence, self respect, status and control of students. Ogbonna (2008) maintained that classroom is a place where teachers as change agents through their daily impressions upon the fertile field of the students minds, often form and re-form the future scheme of things. Students exhibit various behaviours arising from attitude, social class, ethnicity, bias, idiosyncrasy, whims and caprices in the classroom. The behaviours require conscious manipulations by the class teacher to bring about effective instruction.
Concept of Management
Management is a genetic term and subject to many explanations. Management has been interpreted in a variety of ways. A number of ideas have been attributed to the meaning of management. Some authorities such as Akubue (2001) and Ogbonnaya (2004) have explained management in terms of group of people in an organization, while some others such as Peretomode (2011) described it as a social process which has goals to accomplish. In whichever way management has been perceived, the issue remains that, it involves harmonization of resources in an interaction to achieve stated objectives. This is why Oboegbulem and Onwurah (2011) defined management as the effective organization and utilization of human and material resources in a particular system for achievement of identified objectives.
Management is concerned with establishing a philosophy, laws, theories, principle, processes and practice that can be applied in various situations including schools, (Okoye, 2009). Barney (2015) related management to as an art and skill of getting things done through people. He saw management as skills of getting the right decision from incomplete and sometimes incorrect information. Haworth (2009) also sees management as the process that deals with daily working and implementation of current plans that will help in the immediate health of an organization. Management entails supervising, controlling and coordinating activities of people in an organization or unit with the intention of achieving the organization’s objectives. Alagbu (2008) contended that management is the guidance, leadership and control of the efforts of a group of people towards achieving a common goal. It is the social interaction which involves the utilization of the administrative tools such as planning, organizing, coordinating and control in order that the available resources will be used to achieve the organizational goals in a more effective and fastest means. In the light of the above, Adesina (2010) argues that management is the coordination of the resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling activities in the organization for goal attainment.
The main issue about management is that, it involves the use of resources, be it human or materials and the achievement of goals. There is no management without people. Management is a process undertaken by people to co-ordinate and controls the activities of others to accomplish identified objectives. Sapre (2012) opined that management relates to all those activities directed towards effective utilization for organizational resources in order to achieve organizational goals. It is a process concerned with creating, maintaining, stimulating and controlling the activities of people within a unified system to achieve identified objectives. It is only with good management that an organization can create, maintain, stimulate and control the activities of people within it to accomplish predetermined goals (Aghenta, 2013). This implies that teachers need to have good management skills that are required in classroom organization to create, maintain, stimulate and control the activities of students in order to achieve positive educational outcomes. In a classroom setting, management entails planning, organizing, directing, supervising and evaluating students and their activities within the classroom setting.
In this chapter, we would describe how the study was carried out.
It is a term used to describe a number of decisions which need to be taken regarding the collection of data before they are collected. (Nwana, 1981). It provides guidelines which direct the researcher towards solving the research problem and may vary depending on the nature of the problem being studied. According to Okaja ( 2003, p. 2),” research design means the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationship, it is used for the purpose of obtaining data to enable the investigator test hypothesis or answer research question by providing procedural outline for conducting research”. It is therefore, an outline or scheme that serves as a useful guide to the researcher in his efforts to generate data for his study. This study adopts the survey research design. According to Babbie (1990) cited in Akarika, Ukpe and Ikon (2019:58) survey is probably the best method available to the social scientist interested in collecting original data for describing a population too large to observe directly.
Population of the study
A study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description (Prince Udoyen: 2019). the population of the study consist of the entire teachers of Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State.
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
This chapter presents the data collected from respondents, as well as the results of their analyses. The presentation and analyses are according to the research questions. The summary of findings from the analyses is also presented.
CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter discusses the findings of the study, educational implications of the findings are also highlighted and recommendation made. Limitations of the study are also indicated while suggestions for further research were also made.
Summary of the Study
The study centered on the examination the role of the teacher in classroom management. Four research questions were formulated for the study. The population for the study consisted of 50 teachers while the sample for the study included a total of 27 respondents. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection and was designed to elicit appropriate information from the respondents.
The reliability co-efficient of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach Alpha method. Alpha value was found to be 0.92 indicating high reliability of the instrument. Mean score and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Some of the major findings of the study indicated a great extent in relation to teachers using effective communication as classroom management skill for quality assurance secondary schools, the finding also showed a great extent teachers ensure discipline as classroom management skill for quality assurance in secondary schools.
The research study examined the examine the role of the teacher in classroom management. Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn that, in classrooms, teachers do adopt and use effective communication in their teaching, ensure students discipline, motivate and manage their time as classroom management and control in secondary schools.
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that principals and teachers should always adopt and use different communication techniques that will enable students to decode any information pass across. Also principals and teachers should encourage students through motivation and rewarding outstanding students.
Findings from the study also revealed that, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female teachers on the extent teachers use effective communication as classroom management in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South LGA in Delta State.
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were proffered:
- School principals and teachers should adopt different means of communication that will enable students to decode any information pass across to them.
- Secondary school management and teachers should adopt different means of inculcating discipline into their students such as punishment.
- School principals and teachers should always rewards and motivate their students through positive words, gift to any student who performs well.
- Secondary school management should also discourage teachers from spending beyond the normal period they have for a particular class. These will enable each teacher to plan and utilize their time.
- Teacher education institutions should pay more attention to imparting classroom management skills on teacher-trainees.
- School principals should supervise teachers’ classroom activities more closely to ensure that teachers’ weaknesses in classroom management skills are corrected.
- Conference, workshops, seminars and other in-service programmes should be regularly organized for teachers to acquaint them with latest innovations in classroom management.
Suggestion for Further Studies
It is suggested that, further research be carried out in the following areas:
- The present study was carried out in secondary schools in Calabar; further study can be conducted using primary school or institution of higher learning.
- Since the present study was conducted in public secondary schools in Calabar, further study can be carried out in another state in Nigeria.
- The present study was carried out in public secondary schools; therefore, further study can be carried out in private secondary schools.
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