Availability and Utilization of Health Facilities by Student Implication for Counseling
Objective of the Study
The purpose of this study was to assess the availability and utilization of health facilities by student implication for counseling. The study focuses on the following specific purposes:
- To determine the perception of both healthcare workers and administrators about utilization of services in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
- To assess the availability of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
- To assess the utilization of the health facilities available for the people in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
- To determine whether demographic characteristics of the respondents affect the utilization of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
- Empirical framework
Concept of Health
Health has been declared as a fundamental human right. This implies that the state has the responsibility for the health of its people. National governments all over the world have been striving to expand and improve their health facilities to meet the health needs of their people. However, the current criticism against health facilities is that they are:
- Predominantly urban oriented.
- Mostly curative in nature.
- Accessible to only a small portion of the population. The concern for people in both developed and developing countries is not only to reach the entire population with adequate health facilities but to also secure an acceptable level of health for all by the year 2000 and beyond through the application of primary healthcare programmes (Park, 1997).
In the late 60s and early 70s, the health situation of people especially in developing countries was adjudged very poor with widespread inequalities in health services and facilities between and within countries. This was inspite of availability of technology to address most of these health problems as well as efforts by these countries and W.H.O to improve the health status of the people.
The World Health Organization (WHO) therefore, responded in 1978 with the Alma Ata International Conference on Primary Healthcare which was endorsed as the key or strategy for the attainment of health for all by the year 2000 and beyond. The principles of health facilities delivery in relation to availability, accessibility, acceptability and appropriateness that was clamoured for before the conference now become the major focus of primary health facilities.
Health for all by the year 2000 and beyond cannot be attained without adequate availability of health facilities for the entire country. health facilities should conform to the economic characteristics of a country and its communities, thereby, making preventive and curative services effective, acceptable, affordable and manageable.
The National Health Policy launched in 1988 contains the tenet that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important goal, (Akinkugbe, 1990).
The policy based on primary healthcare was quite necessary due to the general poor state of health and health facilities and status of Nigerians. health facilities are designed to meet the needs of the community through the use of available resources and knowledge. The services that are provided are to be comprehensive and community based. The basic challenge of any country today is to be able to meet the whole population with health facilities and ensure that these are properly utilized. The main purpose of these health facilities is to improve the health status of the people for more productivity and economic advantages.
In many countries, hospital based curative services have received the greatest amount of attention. This has created a paradox situation. Because of inadequate public health and primary health facilities, patients with preventable diseases have often overloaded the hospital services so that tertiary care facilities are being used for primary care.
The availability of health facilities should therefore aim at incorporating three overlapping spheres of activity of health promotion; these are health prevention, health protection and health education. A central principle is the empowerment of individuals, groups and communities.
Despite great advances in medicine and technology, the health status of a majority of people in the disadvantage areas of most countries of the world remains low. The seriousness of this problem is shown by the high morbidity and mortality rates that exist in these disadvantaged areas that still constitute 80-85% of the population of the world. Abdulraheem, Oladipupo & Amodu (2012) corroborate in view of the above that it is only then necessary to have comprehensive health facilities to all parts of the country to help elevate the health status of the people.
health facilities at the international level are being undertaken by organizations like WHO, which is the major international health agency. It’s services include helping countries all over the world to improve their health services. This can thus be accomplished in a variety of ways; may upon request, send a team of public health specialists to help control malaria in a particular country. This is aimed at eliminating that health problem through adequate health facilities to the people concerned. (WHO, expert committee reports, 1988).
According to WHO technical report (1988), lack of effective and adequate health facilities affects the health status of citizens of a country. In such a circumstance, many health problems will be unattended to, resulting in deaths, disabilities and an effect on the economy of the country. Lack of adequate health facilities results in unproductively or a reduction in the full capacity of the individual to function. One of a country’s indexes of development is seen in her capacity to provide efficient health facilities to her citizens that are accessible, affordable and utilized. For it is believed that a healthy nation is a wealthy nation. health facilities should be made available within a given geographical area with consideration of their relevance to the existing situation and acceptability to the population.
According to Israel, Ademiluyi and Sunday (2009), the organization of the federal government in the field of health has undergone many changes in recent years. These changes have resulted in the remarkable increase in government involvement, particularly in medical care and the delivery of health facilities.
According to Lambo (1985) inspite of tremendous advances in medicine and technology, the health status of the majority of people in the disadvantaged countries of the world remains low. This is indicated by the high mortality and morbidity rates that exist in the rural areas that constitute 80% of the world population. In such areas, there are problems of communicable diseases, malnutrition, parasitic infections and others that continue to take a heavy toll on people’s lives. The low health status of these people has not only manifested its self in terms of morbidity and mortality but has also affected human development and the capacity of the individuals to develop their potentialities and live a productive life. Lack of adequate health facilities to the people is one of the major health problems of Nigeria. Many people die from preventable diseases and other ailments that can easily be tackled with adequate health facilities.
In the distribution of health services to provide for the medical needs of an entire nation or region, population has been the primary concern of all regional health planners. This is to enable the services cover the entire population of the area. High quality care is that which utilizes all the relevant knowledge and techniques available to the health sciences. The components of quality medical care include individual competence of medical care providers, availability of the equipment and auxiliary persons required to perform the most effective, preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative procedures and the ability to gain the confidence of the patient and their cooperation with the demand of the medical treatment (Israel, Ademiluyi and Sunday 2009).
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e. mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals, as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to examine the availability and utilization of health facilities by student implication for counseling using Nasarawa State University, Keffi as case study. Hence, the population of this study comprises of students of Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of one hundred and sixty-five(165) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which one hundred and fifty (150) were returned and all were validated. For this study a total of 150 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarizes the findings on the availability and utilization of health facilities by student implication for counseling using Nasarawa State University, Keffi as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the availability and utilization of health facilities by student implication for counseling using Nasarawa State University, Keffi as case study. The study is was specifically focused on determining the perception of both healthcare workers and administrators about utilization of services in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, assessing the availability of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, assessing the utilization of the health facilities available for the people in Nasarawa State University, Keffi and determining whether demographic characteristics of the respondents affect the utilization of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
From the analysis presented and on the limitation of this study, the following conclusions are drawn.
- There is adequate availability of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
- There is adequate utilization of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, which may be due to the effects of utilization factors.
- Income and family size significantly affect the utilization of health facilities.
- There was no significance difference in the perception of healthcare workers and administrators on the availability and utilization of health facilities by demographic characteristics in Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
In the light of the findings of this study, the following recommendations are offered in respect to the provision and utilization of health facilities in tertiary institutions of Nasarawa State.
- The Nasarawa State University, Keffi should make deliberate efforts to expand the existing available health facilities because as at present, the services are inadequate. The expansion is to be able to take care of both staff and students adequately.
- There should be adequate publicity on the available health facilities so that both staff and students can utilize them.
- Priority should be given for adequate availability of health facilities in Nasarawa State University, Keffi of Nasarawa State. This is because without good health, nothing can be achieved by the staff and students.
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