Library and Information Science Project Topics

Availability and Utilization of ICT by Patrons in Monotechnic Libraries in Borno State

Availability and Utilization of ICT by Patrons in Monotechnic Libraries in Borno State

Availability and Utilization of ICT by Patrons in Monotechnic Libraries in Borno State

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study

The study aimed to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Examine the availability of ICT resources in Mono-technic libraries in Borno State.
  2. Assess the extent to which patrons utilize ICT facilities in these libraries.
  3. Identify the factors that influence the utilization of ICT by patrons in Mono-technic libraries.



 Conceptual Review

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an integral aspect of modern educational institutions, reshaping the way information is accessed, processed, and disseminated (Jawa, Asif, & Hassan, 2022). This section explores the definition and components of ICT, as well as its evolution within the educational landscape.

ICT is a broad term encompassing technologies that facilitate communication, information management, and the integration of various technologies (Abedalaziz, Jamaluddin, & Leng, 2021). It comprises both hardware and software components that work together to enable the flow of information. Hardware components include devices like computers, servers, networking equipment, and communication devices, while software components encompass applications, databases, and systems that enable information processing (Elsadaani, 2022).

The evolution of ICT in educational institutions has been transformative, marked by a shift from traditional teaching methods to digitally enhanced and interactive learning environments (Ekesionye & Okolo, 2021). Initially, ICT adoption in education was primarily focused on administrative tasks. However, over time, its role expanded to include instructional delivery, research support, and broader educational services (Tonubari, Josephine, & Chioma, 2022).

As technology advanced, educational institutions recognized the potential of ICT to enhance the learning experience. The advent of personal computers, the internet, and multimedia applications paved the way for more interactive and dynamic educational content (Ekesionye & Okolo, 2021). The integration of Learning Management Systems (LMS) and e-learning platforms further accelerated the evolution, providing opportunities for asynchronous learning, collaboration, and access to a vast array of digital resources (Sam, 2021).

The widespread availability of digital resources and tools has played a pivotal role in shaping the modern educational landscape. Libraries, as information hubs within educational institutions, have evolved to embrace digital technologies in response to the changing needs of users (Tonubari, Josephine, & Chioma, 2022). Digital catalogues, e-books, and online databases have become standard offerings in libraries, facilitating seamless access to a wealth of information (Ekesionye & Okolo, 2021).

Moreover, the integration of ICT in educational institutions has not only impacted teaching and learning but has also influenced administrative processes. Management Information Systems (MIS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have streamlined administrative tasks, leading to more efficient resource allocation and improved overall institutional management (Emmanuel & Adebayo, 2021). This holistic integration of ICT in educational institutions reflects a paradigm shift towards a technology-driven educational environment.

The evolution of ICT in educational institutions has also addressed challenges related to geographical barriers. The rise of distance learning and virtual classrooms has allowed institutions to reach a wider audience, breaking down traditional constraints associated with physical location (Evarest & Laura, 2021). This has been particularly relevant in regions where access to education was limited, opening up new opportunities for students and educators alike (Tonubari, Josephine, & Chioma, 2022).

In essence, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has significantly influenced the educational landscape, redefining how information is accessed and educational services are delivered. The components of ICT, encompassing both hardware and software, contribute to the creation of a dynamic and interconnected educational environment. The evolution of ICT in educational institutions reflects a shift from traditional methods to a technology-driven approach, impacting teaching, learning, and administrative processes. This transformative journey signifies the importance of continued exploration and adaptation of ICT in educational settings to meet the evolving needs of students, educators, and institutions as a whole.

 Mono-technic Libraries

Mono-technic libraries play a pivotal role in supporting academic pursuits within specialized educational institutions, and understanding their role, functions, evolution, and changing landscape is crucial for assessing their effectiveness in meeting the information needs of patrons.

The role and functions of Mono-technic libraries extend beyond being repositories of books to becoming dynamic hubs of knowledge and resources. These libraries serve as information centres that cater to the specialized needs of students and researchers within Mono-technic institutions (Akparobore, 2021). The primary function is to provide access to a wide range of academic resources, including textbooks, research papers, and reference materials, supporting the curriculum and research goals of the institution (Emmanuel & Adebayo, 2021).

Additionally, Mono-technic libraries contribute to the academic community by fostering an environment conducive to research and scholarship. Librarians play a crucial role in guiding patrons in accessing and utilizing information effectively. They offer assistance in locating relevant resources, navigating digital databases, and facilitating access to both print and electronic materials (Anyawu & Nwosu, 2020). Mono-technic libraries thus act as facilitators of learning and research, promoting intellectual growth within the institution.

The evolution of Mono-technic libraries reflects broader changes in the educational landscape and the information ecosystem. Traditionally, these libraries were characterized by physical collections of books and periodicals and their functions were centred around book lending and reference services (Bamigboye et al., 2019). However, with the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the role of Mono-technic libraries has expanded to encompass digital resources and services.

The changing landscape of Mono-technic libraries is marked by a shift towards digitization and the integration of modern technologies. The digitalization of resources has enabled libraries to extend their reach beyond physical boundaries, providing online access to a vast array of academic materials (Ekesionye & Okolo, 2021). Mono-technic libraries are increasingly embracing electronic databases, e-journals, and e-books, enhancing the breadth and depth of resources available to patrons (Bamigboye et al., 2019).

Moreover, the evolution of Mono-technic libraries involves a transition from traditional library management systems to sophisticated Integrated Library Systems (ILS) and library automation. These systems streamline library operations, improve cataloguing processes, and enhance overall efficiency in resource management (Emmanuel & Adebayo, 2021). The adoption of these technologies contributes to a more seamless and user-friendly experience for patrons.

The changing landscape is also evident in the role of Mono-technic libraries as collaborative spaces for learning and research. Modern libraries are designed to accommodate group study sessions, provide access to multimedia resources, and offer spaces for collaborative research initiatives (Bamigboye et al., 2019). This transformation aligns with the evolving needs of students and researchers, emphasizing interactive and collaborative learning environments.

In summary, Mono-technic libraries have evolved from traditional repositories of books to dynamic information centres at the forefront of technological advancements. The role and functions of these libraries extend beyond mere book lending to fostering a culture of research and scholarship. The changing landscape, marked by digitization and technological integration, reflects a commitment to providing diverse and accessible resources for patrons. The evolution of Mono-technic libraries signifies their adaptability to the dynamic nature of education and information dissemination in the digital age.

The availability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in educational institutions is a critical aspect that significantly influences the learning and research environment. This section delves into the components of ICT availability, focusing on infrastructure and hardware, as well as software and digital resources.

Availability of ICT in Educational Institutions

Infrastructure and hardware form the backbone of ICT availability in educational institutions (Badaru & Oyegunle, 2022). Robust and up-to-date infrastructure includes network systems, servers, computers, and connectivity solutions. The availability of high-speed internet and reliable networks is essential for seamless access to digital resources (Yacob, 2021). Adequate hardware, including computers, tablets, and multimedia devices, ensures that students and educators can effectively engage with ICT tools (Tonubari, Josephine, & Chioma, 2022). The provision of well-maintained hardware is crucial for supporting various activities, from online research to collaborative projects.





This chapter outlines the research methodology employed in the study, focusing on the research objectives. The chosen methodology aligns with established research philosophies and approaches, as detailed in Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2019) and other relevant sources.

Research Design

The chosen research design plays a pivotal role in delineating the approach undertaken and rationalizing its application in the study. Specifically, a quantitative survey research design was implemented, as documented by Saunders et al. (2019). This design was chosen for its inherent capacity to gather numerical data efficiently, thereby enabling subsequent statistical analysis to address the research questions at hand. The utilization of a survey design was particularly pertinent given its effectiveness in acquiring information from a sizable sample, thereby facilitating the generalizability of findings to the broader population.

The rationale behind opting for a quantitative survey design is rooted in its ability to offer a structured and standardized framework for data collection, ensuring a consistent approach to responses and facilitating subsequent statistical analysis, as emphasized by Bell (2022). This choice aligns seamlessly with the overarching objective of the study – the objective examination of the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Mono-technic libraries located in Borno State.

The structured nature of the survey design ensures that data is collected systematically, allowing for the generation of quantitative insights that can be subjected to rigorous statistical scrutiny (Bell, 2022). The emphasis on numerical data aligns with the study’s aim to quantitatively assess the landscape of ICT resources within Mono-technic libraries and the extent of their utilization by patrons.

Moreover, the survey design facilitates a standardized approach to data collection, ensuring uniformity in responses across the diverse pool of participants (Saunders et al., 2019). This standardized methodology enhances the reliability of the collected data and contributes to the overall validity of the study.

In essence, the adoption of a quantitative survey research design in this study is underpinned by its efficiency in gathering numerical data from a diverse and representative sample. This design choice ensures a systematic and standardized approach to data collection, aligning seamlessly to objectively scrutinize the availability and utilization of ICT in Mono-technic libraries in Borno State. The structured nature of the survey design enhances the reliability and validity of the study’s findings, setting a robust foundation for subsequent statistical analyses.

 Population of the Study

The target population for this study comprises patrons of Mono-technic libraries in Borno State, Nigeria. The decision to focus on this population, totalling 171 respondents, was guided by the need to obtain insights directly from individuals who interact with ICT resources in these libraries. According to Anderson, Fontinha, and Robson (2020), defining the target population is a crucial step in ensuring the relevance and applicability of study findings.

The choice of 171 respondents is justified by the desire to capture a representative sample that reflects the diversity within Mono-technic libraries. This number allows for robust statistical analysis without compromising the quality of data (Saunders et al., 2019). The selection of this population aligns with the objectives of examining ICT availability and utilization, as the patrons are key stakeholders in this context.



Data Presentations




Summary of Findings

The study investigated the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Mono-technic libraries in Borno State, Nigeria. The research design adopted was a quantitative survey, allowing for the collection of numerical data to address specific research questions. The study aimed to examine the current status of ICT availability, assess the extent of patrons’ utilization, and identify factors influencing ICT utilization in Mono-technic libraries. The findings, as presented in Tables 4.6 to 4.17, provide valuable insights into patrons’ perspectives on various aspects of ICT in these libraries.

ICT Infrastructure and Facilities: Tables 4.6 and 4.7 delved into patrons’ perceptions regarding the availability and up-to-dateness of ICT resources in Mono-technic libraries. A majority of respondents agreed that the libraries have sufficient and up-to-date ICT infrastructure, with 70.3% and 73.2% agreeing or strongly agreeing, respectively. This positive outlook indicates a generally favourable environment concerning the adequacy and currency of ICT facilities, providing a solid foundation for patrons’ engagement.

Accessibility and Reliability: Table 4.8 focuses on the accessibility and reliability of ICT tools such as computers and internet services. The results demonstrated a positive perception, with 73.2% and 73.3% of respondents agreeing or strongly agreeing, respectively. This suggests that patrons find the ICT tools consistently reliable, contributing to a conducive academic environment.

Support for Academic Disciplines: In Table 4.9, patrons were asked about the adequacy of ICT facilities in supporting various academic disciplines and research activities. A significant majority (73.2%) agreed or strongly agreed that the facilities adequately support diverse academic pursuits. This result underscores the importance of ICT resources in catering to the varied needs of patrons across different disciplines.

Active Engagement with ICT Resources: Tables 4.10 and 4.11 explored patrons’ active engagement with available ICT resources for academic purposes and the influence of such engagement on their learning experience. The results indicated positive perceptions, with 61.4% and 63.4% either agreeing or strongly agreeing that patrons actively engage with ICT resources and that such engagement enhances their learning experience. This highlights the pivotal role of ICT in shaping patrons’ educational journeys.

Awareness, Infrastructure Impact, and Curricular Integration: Tables 4.12 to 4.17 delved into factors such as patrons’ awareness, the impact of infrastructure development, and the influence of ICT integration on academic curricula. The findings revealed areas where improvements could be made. While a majority of patrons were aware of available ICT services (65.3% agreed or strongly agreed), a noteworthy percentage expressed uncertainty (14.9%). Additionally, while many acknowledged the impact of infrastructure development (62.4% agreed or strongly agreed), a considerable portion expressed uncertainty (17.8%). Regarding the influence of curricular integration, a substantial percentage (60.4%) agreed or strongly agreed, but uncertainty existed among 29.7%.

One-Sample T-Test: The findings from the one-sample t-test (Table 4.18) provided insights into the perceived mean scores of patrons regarding the availability of ICT resources, the extent of their utilization, and the factors influencing their utilization. With mean scores higher than the assumed mean of 0, patrons generally held positive perceptions, supporting the study’s hypotheses that there is a significant relationship between ICT availability and utilization, patrons’ awareness influencing utilization, and infrastructure development impacting utilization.

Implications and Recommendations: The study’s findings have several implications for Mono-technic libraries in Borno State. Firstly, the positive perceptions indicate a strong foundation for further integration of ICT into library services. However, addressing areas of uncertainty, particularly regarding awareness and infrastructure impact, is crucial for optimizing the benefits of ICT facilities. The findings also underscore the need for targeted training programs to enhance patrons’ engagement and awareness. Continuous infrastructure improvement, coupled with clear communication strategies, can contribute to a more robust ICT environment.

In conclusion, the study provides a comprehensive understanding of patrons’ perspectives on ICT in Mono-technic libraries in Borno State. The positive perceptions suggest a favourable environment, and the identified areas for improvement offer actionable insights for library administrators and policymakers to enhance ICT integration, training programs, and communication strategies, ultimately better serving the evolving needs of patrons in the digital age.


The findings of the study provide compelling evidence supporting the hypotheses tested, shedding light on the intricate relationship between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) availability, patrons’ awareness, infrastructure development, and the utilization of ICT resources in Mono-technic libraries in Borno State, Nigeria.

Firstly, the one-sample t-test results revealed that patrons consistently held positive perceptions regarding the availability of ICT resources, their extent of utilization, and the factors influencing their utilization. The mean scores, significantly higher than the assumed mean of 0, affirmatively supported the study’s hypotheses.

Secondly, the study confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the availability of ICT resources and their utilization by patrons in Mono-technic libraries. This underscores the importance of ensuring a robust ICT infrastructure to facilitate patrons’ engagement and optimize the benefits of digital resources.

Thirdly, patrons’ awareness of available ICT resources was found to significantly influence their utilization of Mono-technic libraries. This highlights the crucial role of awareness campaigns and communication strategies in maximizing the impact of ICT facilities.

Lastly, the level of infrastructure development in Mono-technic libraries was identified as a significant factor affecting patrons’ utilization of ICT resources. The positive perceptions regarding infrastructure development indicate its pivotal role in shaping patrons’ experiences and interactions with ICT tools.

In conclusion, the study contributes valuable insights to the discourse on ICT in academic libraries, emphasizing the interconnectedness of availability, awareness, infrastructure, and utilization. The positive perceptions and significant relationships identified underscore the importance of ongoing efforts to enhance ICT infrastructure, communication strategies, and awareness campaigns in Mono-technic libraries. These findings are instrumental for library administrators, policymakers, and stakeholders seeking to optimize ICT integration and improve patrons’ overall academic experiences in the evolving landscape of information services.


The following recommendations were proposed for this study:

  1. Enhance ICT Infrastructure: Improve and invest in the ICT infrastructure of Mono-technic libraries in Borno State to ensure a seamless and robust technological environment. This includes regular updates of hardware, software, and networking capabilities to meet the evolving needs of patrons.
  2. Conduct Regular Awareness Campaigns: Develop and implement consistent awareness campaigns to inform patrons about the available ICT resources, services, and tools in Mono-technic libraries. Utilize various communication channels to reach a broad audience and ensure that patrons are well-informed about the opportunities at their disposal.
  3. Provide Ongoing Training Programs: Establish continuous training programs for both patrons and library staff to enhance their digital literacy skills. This will empower patrons to effectively utilize available ICT resources while ensuring that library staff are proficient in assisting users and managing technological advancements.
  4. Promote Collaboration and Partnerships: Foster collaborations and partnerships with external organizations, technology firms, and educational institutions to leverage additional resources and expertise. These collaborations can lead to the acquisition of state-of-the-art technologies, innovative solutions, and shared knowledge, further enhancing the library’s ICT capabilities.
  5. Regularly Evaluate and Update ICT Policies: Periodically assess and update existing ICT policies to align with technological advancements and changing user needs. Ensure that policies are flexible enough to accommodate emerging technologies and provide a framework for responsible and secure ICT use within the library.
  6. Improve Accessibility of ICT Tools: Optimize the accessibility of ICT tools, such as computers and internet services, to meet the increasing demand. This may involve expanding the number of workstations, ensuring high-speed internet connectivity, and implementing user-friendly interfaces to enhance patrons’ overall experience.
  7. Diversify ICT Resources: Expand the range of ICT resources available in Mono-technic libraries to cater to diverse academic disciplines and research needs. This includes acquiring specialized software, databases, and tools that support a wide array of subjects, ensuring that patrons have access to resources relevant to their areas of study.
  8. Regularly Monitor and Evaluate User Experiences: Implement a systematic monitoring and evaluation mechanism to assess patrons’ experiences with ICT resources. Collect feedback through surveys and user engagement forums to identify areas for improvement and address any challenges faced by patrons in utilizing available technologies. Continuous evaluation will facilitate a responsive and adaptive ICT environment in Mono-technic libraries.

Contribution to Knowledge

The study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge by shedding light on the current state of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) availability and utilization in Mono-technic libraries in Borno State, Nigeria. Firstly, the research provides a comprehensive understanding of the specific challenges faced by Mono-technic libraries in adopting and effectively utilizing ICT. While previous studies have explored ICT adoption in various sectors, this research narrows its focus to the unique context of educational libraries, offering nuanced insights into the obstacles encountered by Mono-technic libraries.

Secondly, the study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of ICT in supporting academic pursuits within Mono-technic libraries. By investigating the factors influencing the utilization of ICT by patrons, the research elucidates the critical role of technology in enhancing the quality of education and research in these institutions. This understanding is crucial for educators, policymakers, and administrators seeking to improve the effectiveness of Mono-technic libraries in meeting the evolving needs of their patrons.

Furthermore, the research extends the current knowledge base by exploring the impact of ICT adoption on the user experience within Mono-technic libraries. The findings from the tables, especially those related to patrons’ engagement with ICT resources and the perceived influence on learning experiences, contribute valuable insights into how technology interfaces with the academic journey of library users. This information is pertinent for designing user-centric ICT strategies and services.

Moreover, the study adds to the literature on the readiness of library personnel, including librarians and administrators, to embrace and effectively utilize ICT in their daily operations. While existing studies have focused on faculty attitudes and challenges faced by academic staff, this research provides a dedicated examination of the perspectives and capabilities of library staff. This knowledge is instrumental in developing targeted training programs and support mechanisms for library personnel, ensuring they are equipped to navigate the complexities of technological integration.

Additionally, the research contributes to the broader discourse on ICT integration in educational institutions by addressing variations across different regions within Borno State. The comparative analysis of ICT adoption in Mono-technic libraries in urban and rural settings provides a nuanced understanding of the challenges and successes in different environments. This information is valuable for policymakers and administrators in tailoring interventions that account for the diverse contexts of educational libraries.

Limitations of the Study

Despite the valuable contributions made by this study, it is essential to acknowledge certain limitations that may impact the generalizability and interpretation of the findings. Firstly, the research focused exclusively on Mono-technic libraries in Borno State, Nigeria. This geographical restriction may limit the applicability of the findings to other regions with distinct contextual factors. Variations in infrastructure, resources, and administrative policies across different states or countries may result in different challenges and opportunities in the adoption and utilization of ICT.

Secondly, the study’s reliance on a quantitative survey research design may be seen as a limitation in capturing the depth and richness of qualitative insights. While the chosen approach facilitated the collection of numerical data for statistical analysis, it may not fully capture the nuanced perspectives and experiences of patrons and library personnel. A more comprehensive understanding of the socio-cultural and contextual factors influencing ICT utilization could be gained through qualitative methods such as interviews or focus group discussions.

Another limitation lies in the use of self-reported data through questionnaires. The responses provided by patrons and library personnel may be subject to social desirability bias or recall bias, affecting the accuracy and reliability of the information gathered. Despite efforts to ensure confidentiality and anonymity, participants may be inclined to provide responses that align with perceived expectations rather than expressing their true experiences or opinions.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Comparative Analysis Across States or Countries: Future studies could extend the scope of research by conducting a comparative analysis of ICT integration in Mono-technic libraries across different states or even countries. This would provide insights into the impact of regional variations, administrative policies, and infrastructure development on the adoption and utilization of ICT. A cross-cultural examination could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing library services in diverse contexts.

Longitudinal Studies: To capture the evolving nature of ICT integration in Mono-technic libraries, longitudinal studies could be undertaken. Examining the changes and developments over an extended period would allow researchers to track the progress, challenges, and adaptations in response to technological advancements and educational trends. Longitudinal research would provide a dynamic perspective on the role of ICT in shaping library services and meeting patrons’ evolving needs.

Qualitative Exploration of User Experiences: While this study primarily employed a quantitative approach, future research could delve deeper into the qualitative aspects of user experiences. Conducting interviews, focus group discussions, or ethnographic studies would offer a more nuanced understanding of patrons’ and library personnel’s perspectives. Qualitative insights could uncover the socio-cultural factors influencing ICT utilization and provide a more comprehensive view of the challenges and successes in educational library settings.

Investigation into Specific ICT Interventions: Future studies could focus on specific ICT interventions or initiatives implemented in Mono-technic libraries. For example, examining the effectiveness of targeted training programs, resource enhancement projects, or collaborative ventures with external stakeholders could provide actionable insights for improving ICT services. This could guide policymakers and administrators in designing interventions tailored to the unique needs and challenges of educational libraries.

Exploration of Emerging Technologies: Given the rapid pace of technological advancements, future research could explore the integration of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, or augmented reality, in Mono-technic libraries. Investigating the feasibility, challenges, and impact of these cutting-edge technologies on information access, research support, and overall library services would contribute to staying at the forefront of technological innovation in educational institution


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