Public Health Project Topics

Awareness of Haemophilia Disease Among Nursing Mothers in Benin City

Awareness of Haemophilia Disease Among Nursing Mothers in Benin City

Awareness of Haemophilia Disease Among Nursing Mothers in Benin City

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study were:

  1. To assess the level of awareness of haemophilia disease among nursing mothers in Benin City.
  2. To identify the sources of information about haemophilia disease accessed by nursing mothers in Benin City.
  3. To explore the attitudes and perceptions of nursing mothers towards haemophilia disease in Benin City.



Conceptual Review

 Haemophilia: Understanding the Disease

Haemophilia, characterized by a deficiency in blood clotting factors, is a rare genetic disorder primarily affecting males (Mannucci, 2018). It is classified into two main types: Haemophilia A, caused by a deficiency in clotting factor VIII, and Haemophilia B, resulting from a deficiency in clotting factor IX (Kruse-Jarres et al., 2017). These deficiencies impair the blood’s ability to clot effectively, leading to prolonged bleeding episodes, even from minor injuries (Berntorp & Shapiro, 2022).

The pathophysiology of haemophilia involves disruptions in the coagulation cascade, a complex series of events essential for blood clot formation (Salen & Babiker, 2023). In individuals with haemophilia, deficiencies in clotting factors impair the cascade, resulting in inadequate clot formation and prolonged bleeding (Peyvandi et al., 2022). Specifically, in Haemophilia A, the absence of factor VIII impairs the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, disrupting the formation of fibrin, an essential component of blood clots (Tonbary et al., 2020). Similarly, in Haemophilia B, the deficiency of factor IX disrupts the activation of factor X, further inhibiting fibrin formation (Stonebraker et al., 2020).

Clinical manifestations of haemophilia typically include spontaneous bleeding into joints and muscles, as well as prolonged bleeding following trauma or invasive procedures (Zimmerman & Valentino, 2023). Individuals with severe haemophilia may experience frequent and debilitating bleeding episodes, while those with moderate or mild forms may have less severe symptoms (Bertamino et al., 2017). Joint bleeding, a common complication of haemophilia, can lead to chronic joint disease and significant disability if left untreated (Llinás, 2010). Additionally, individuals with haemophilia are at risk of intracranial haemorrhage, which can result in life-threatening complications (Hegde et al., 2022).

Complications associated with haemophilia extend beyond physical symptoms and can have profound psychosocial impacts on affected individuals and their families (Srivastava et al., 2021). Chronic pain, disability, and reduced quality of life are common among individuals with severe haemophilia and those experiencing frequent bleeding episodes (Duncan et al., 2019). Furthermore, the financial burden of managing haemophilia, including the cost of factor replacement therapy and associated healthcare expenses, can be substantial (McEneny-King et al., 2017). Psychosocial support and comprehensive care are therefore essential components of haemophilia management to address both the physical and emotional needs of affected individuals (Goodeve et al., 2020).

 Awareness: Importance in Healthcare

Awareness in healthcare refers to the level of understanding and knowledge individuals possess regarding various health-related issues, including diseases, prevention strategies, and available treatments (Husseinzadeh et al., 2018). It plays a crucial role in promoting health-seeking behaviours, facilitating early detection of diseases, and improving treatment adherence (Rodriguez-Merchan, 2020). Awareness is particularly significant in the context of haemophilia, where timely intervention can prevent severe complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals (Bharati & Prashanth, 2021).

Several factors influence awareness levels among individuals, including socioeconomic status, education level, access to healthcare services, and cultural beliefs (Balkaransingh & Young, 2018). Individuals with higher levels of education and socioeconomic status are more likely to seek out information about health-related issues and engage in preventive behaviours (Chen, 2020). Conversely, those with limited access to healthcare services or living in underserved communities may have lower levels of awareness due to barriers such as language, transportation, and financial constraints (Léger, 2020).





In this chapter, the methodology adopted for this study is presented. The research design, population of the study, sampling technique and sample size, sources and method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical considerations are discussed.

 Research Design

The research design for this study is a quantitative survey. A quantitative approach was chosen due to its suitability for collecting numerical data that can be analyzed statistically to identify patterns, relationships, and trends among variables (Saunders et al., 2019). This design allows for the collection of data from a large sample size, enabling the generalization of findings to the broader population (Bell, 2022).

Population of the Study

The target population for this study consists of nursing mothers in Benin City, Nigeria. The justification for selecting this population is based on the importance of understanding the awareness levels of haemophilia among nursing mothers and its implications for early detection and management of the condition in their children. A total of 171 respondents were targeted to ensure adequate representation and diversity within the population.



Data Presentation




Summary of Findings

The comprehensive study conducted in Benin City delved into various aspects of haemophilia awareness among nursing mothers, shedding light on their understanding, attitudes, and perceptions towards this rare genetic disorder. Through meticulous analysis and interpretation of data gathered from a diverse sample of respondents, several key findings emerged, painting a vivid picture of the current landscape of haemophilia awareness in the community.

One of the standout discoveries was the relatively high level of awareness among nursing mothers regarding haemophilia disease. The findings indicated that a majority of respondents possessed a solid understanding of haemophilia, recognizing it as a serious health condition characterized by impaired blood clotting. This heightened awareness can be attributed to multiple sources, with healthcare professionals and the internet emerging as primary sources of information. These findings underscore the pivotal role played by healthcare providers and online resources in disseminating knowledge about haemophilia to the community, empowering nursing mothers with vital information to make informed decisions about their health and that of their children.

However, amidst this overarching awareness, there were nuanced observations regarding certain aspects of haemophilia understanding and perceptions. While nursing mothers generally acknowledged the seriousness of haemophilia, there were indications of uncertainty or misconceptions about specific aspects of the disorder, such as its signs and symptoms. This suggests that while the foundation of awareness is strong, there is a need for targeted educational interventions to address gaps in knowledge and dispel any misconceptions, ensuring that nursing mothers are equipped with accurate information to navigate haemophilia-related challenges confidently.

Furthermore, the study revealed encouraging insights into nursing mothers’ attitudes towards seeking medical care for haemophilia-related emergencies. Despite potential uncertainties or misconceptions, respondents demonstrated a willingness to seek medical attention promptly, suggesting a proactive approach to managing haemophilia-related issues. This positive attitude towards healthcare-seeking behaviour bodes well for the overall management and care of individuals with haemophilia in the community, as it indicates a supportive environment where timely intervention and treatment are prioritized.

Additionally, the study uncovered valuable information about the diverse sources of information accessed by nursing mothers, highlighting the multifaceted nature of haemophilia awareness dissemination. Beyond healthcare professionals and the internet, family and friends, as well as television and radio programs, were identified as significant sources of information. This underscores the importance of leveraging various communication channels to reach nursing mothers effectively, tailoring educational efforts to suit diverse preferences and needs within the community.

Overall, the findings of this study offer valuable insights into the current state of haemophilia awareness among nursing mothers in Benin City. While there is a strong foundation of awareness, there are opportunities for improvement, particularly in addressing misconceptions and ensuring a comprehensive understanding of haemophilia-related issues. By leveraging the identified sources of information and adopting targeted educational interventions, healthcare providers and policymakers can further enhance haemophilia awareness in the community, ultimately improving health outcomes and quality of life for affected individuals and their families.


In conclusion, the results of the hypotheses testing provide valuable insights into the level of awareness, sources of information, and attitudes of nursing mothers in Benin City towards haemophilia disease. The findings indicate that nursing mothers in the community have a commendable level of awareness about haemophilia, with healthcare professionals and the internet serving as primary sources of information. Additionally, the study reveals positive attitudes towards seeking medical care for haemophilia-related emergencies, suggesting a proactive approach to healthcare-seeking behaviour among respondents. However, while the primary sources of information are effective in disseminating knowledge, there may be room for improvement in addressing potential misconceptions or uncertainties about specific aspects of haemophilia.

Overall, the findings highlight the importance of ongoing education and awareness campaigns to ensure that nursing mothers are equipped with accurate information to make informed decisions about haemophilia-related issues. By addressing gaps in knowledge and perceptions, healthcare providers and policymakers can further enhance haemophilia awareness in the community, ultimately contributing to improved health outcomes and quality of life for affected individuals and their families.


The following recommendations were proposed:

  1. Enhanced Education Campaigns: Implement targeted educational programs aimed at nursing mothers in Benin City to further enhance awareness and understanding of haemophilia disease, its symptoms, management, and available support services.
  2. Collaboration with Healthcare Professionals: Foster collaboration between healthcare providers and community organizations to ensure accurate dissemination of information about haemophilia and facilitate access to specialized care and support services.
  3. Utilization of Online Resources: Expand the use of online platforms and resources to disseminate information about haemophilia, including reputable websites, social media campaigns, and webinars, to reach a wider audience and address misconceptions.
  4. Community Workshops and Seminars: Organize workshops and seminars within the community to provide interactive learning experiences, facilitate open discussions, and address specific concerns or questions raised by nursing mothers regarding haemophilia.
  5. Incorporation of Cultural Sensitivity: Tailor educational materials and programs to be culturally sensitive, considering the diverse cultural beliefs and practices within the community to ensure effective communication and engagement.
  6. Empowerment of Nursing Mothers: Empower nursing mothers with the knowledge and skills to recognize early signs of haemophilia-related complications and respond appropriately, including first aid measures and when to seek medical assistance.
  7. Support Networks and Peer Mentoring: Establish support networks and peer mentoring programs for nursing mothers affected by haemophilia to provide emotional support, share experiences, and exchange information in a supportive environment.
  8. Evaluation and Continuous Improvement: Regularly evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions and awareness campaigns through surveys, focus groups, and feedback mechanisms, and make necessary adjustments to improve their impact and reach.

Contribution to Knowledge

The findings of this study significantly contribute to the existing body of knowledge on haemophilia awareness and understanding among nursing mothers in Benin City. Firstly, the research sheds light on the current level of awareness among nursing mothers regarding haemophilia disease, highlighting areas of strength and areas requiring improvement. By quantifying the level of awareness through surveys and interviews, this study provides valuable insights into the gaps in knowledge that may exist within the community.

Secondly, the study identifies the primary sources of information about haemophilia disease accessed by nursing mothers, thereby elucidating the channels through which awareness is disseminated. This information can inform future educational interventions and awareness campaigns, helping stakeholders target their efforts more effectively and reach a wider audience.

Furthermore, the research explores the attitudes and perceptions of nursing mothers towards haemophilia disease, offering valuable insights into their beliefs, concerns, and motivations. Understanding these attitudes is crucial for designing culturally sensitive and contextually relevant interventions that resonate with the target audience and address their specific needs.

Additionally, the study contributes to the literature by examining the factors influencing haemophilia awareness among nursing mothers, including demographic variables such as age, education level, and access to healthcare resources. By identifying these factors, the research provides a nuanced understanding of the complexities involved in raising awareness about haemophilia within the community.

Finally, the study underscores the importance of community-based approaches to haemophilia awareness and education, highlighting the role of healthcare providers, community organizations, and peer support networks in fostering a supportive environment for nursing mothers affected by the condition. By emphasizing the need for collaboration and empowerment at the grassroots level, the research offers practical recommendations for improving haemophilia awareness and ultimately enhancing the quality of life for affected individuals and their families.

Limitations of the Study

Despite the valuable insights gained from this research, several limitations warrant acknowledgement. Firstly, the study’s reliance on self-reported data from nursing mothers introduces the potential for response bias and social desirability bias. Participants may have provided answers they perceived as socially acceptable or in line with expectations, leading to inflated levels of awareness or positive attitudes towards haemophilia. Additionally, the cross-sectional nature of the study design limits the ability to establish causality or examine changes in awareness and attitudes over time. A longitudinal approach would provide a more robust understanding of how awareness evolves and the factors that influence it among nursing mothers in Benin City.

Furthermore, the study’s sample size, while sufficient for statistical analysis, may not fully represent the diversity of nursing mothers in Benin City. The research primarily targeted mothers attending healthcare facilities, potentially excluding those who do not have access to such services or who have different demographic characteristics. This sampling bias limits the generalizability of the findings and may overlook the perspectives of marginalized or hard-to-reach populations. Future studies could employ more diverse recruitment strategies to ensure a broader representation of nursing mothers and enhance the external validity of the findings


  • Acharya, S. S., Rule, B., McMillan, O., & Humphries, T. J. (2017). Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) in haemophilia A: a commentary on the current status and its potential role for improving prophylaxis management in severe haemophilia A. Ther Adv Hematol, 8(4), 153-156.
  • Anderson, J. A., Brewer, A., Creagh, D., Hook, S., Mainwaring, J., McKernan, A., Yee, T. T., & Yeung, C. A. (2019). Guidance on the dental management of patients with haemophilia and congenital bleeding disorders. Br Dent J, 215(10), 497-504.
  • Auerswald, G., Dolan, G., Duffy, A., Hermans, C., Jiménez-Yuste, V., Ljung, R., Morfini, M., Lambert, T., & Šalek, S. Z. (2020). Pain and pain management in haemophilia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis, 27(8), 845-854.
  • Balkaransingh, P., & Young, G. (2018). Novel therapies and current clinical progress in haemophilia A. Ther Adv Hematol, 9(2), 49-61.
  • Bell, E. (2022). Business research methods. Oxford University Press. Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G. W. (2019). Analyzing qualitative data: Systematic approaches. SAGE publications.
  • Anderson, V., Fontinha, R., & Robson, F. (2020). Research Methods in Human Resource Management: Investigating a Business Issue (4th Ed.). CIPD.
  • Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2019). Business Research Methods (5th Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  •  Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (5th Ed.). SAGE.
  • Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Jackson, P. R. (2018). Management and Business Research. London: Sage.
  • Gray, D. E. (2018). Doing Research in the Real World. London: Sage. Newman, I., & Benz, C. R. (2020). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!