Broiler Production and Value in Imo State a Case Study of Ezinittle Mbaise
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine Broiler production and its value in Imo State. Thus, the specific objectives include;
- To determine the broiler production and value in oru east Imo State.
- Determine if broiler farming is a profitable venture and has a bright future in the Imo State.
- To determine the the total fixed investments per bird on small farms, medium and large farms.
- To find out if the small broiler farms have been observed highly sensitive to increase in costs and decrease in net returns.
Broiler chickens (Gallus gallusdomesticus) are a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Jungle fowl, bred and raised specifically for meat production. Chickens are one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a population of 19 billion in 2011, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird. Typical broilers have white feathers and yellowish skin. Most commercial broilers bred for meat reach slaughter weight at between 5 to 7 weeks of age, although slower growing strains reach slaughter weight at approximately 14 weeks of age. Because of this young age, much of their behaviour and physiology is that of an immature bird. Broilers and egg laying hen are the same species and share many characteristics, however, due to the rapid growth and selection for enlarged breast muscles, broilers are susceptible to different welfare concerns, particularly skeletal malformation and dysfunction. Broilers are usually grown as mixed-sex flocks in large sheds under intensive conditions, but some strains can be grown as free-range flocks.
DOMESTICATION AND MODERN BREEDING
The domestication of the chicken is stated in the Encyclopædia Britannica as: “Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production. Before the development of modern commercial meat breeds (chickens, etc.), broilers were mostly young male chickens culled from farm flocks. Pedigree breeding began around 1916. Magazines for the poultry industry existed at this time. A hybrid variety of chicken was produced from a cross of a male of a naturally double-breasted Cornish strain and a female of a tall, large-boned strain of white Plymouth Rocks. This first attempt at a hybrid meat breed was introduced in the 1930s and became dominant in the 1960s. The original hybrid was plagued by problems of low fertility, slow growth and disease susceptibility. Modern broilers have become very different from the Cornish/Rock hybrid. As an example, Shaver (originally a breeder of egg-layers) began gathering breeding stock for a broiler program in 1950. Besides the breeds normally favoured, Cornish Game, Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Langshans, Jersey Black Giant and Brahmas were included. A white feathered female line was purchased from Cobb. A full scale breeding program was commenced in 1958, with commercial shipments in Canada and the US in 1959 and in Europe in 1963.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
AREA OF STUDY
Oru-East is a Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Its headquarters is at Omuma. The following are towns that make up Oru East: Akatta, Akuma, Amagu, Amiri, Awo-Omamma, and Omuma.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
Oru East is one of the five leading broiler producing districts in Imo State and has the necessity to study the financial viability of broiler farming. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to look into the investment pattern, costs and returns structure, production efficiency and economic viability of different sized poultry farms in Oru East.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
To find the production cost of broiler chicken the parameters were considered based on size wise annual average cost. Table 1 illustrates the parameters to determine the cost of production of integrated broiler farming in Oru East. The average number of birds placed was 8475 birds in overall. In small, medium and large size farms are 4922, 7083 and 13886 birds respectively. The number batches in small is more than medium and large farms because the small farm can be made ready quicker than others. The mortality rate in small is lower than medium and large farms since the intensive care can be taken by the farmer. The average weight of broiler birds 2.19 kilograms in overall, in case of large farm it is lower than medium and small farms as the large farms require lot of labour and care, the economic scale; diminishing balancing works out.
Fixed Capital Investment Pattern on Different Broiler Farm-sizes
The pattern of fixed capital investment for different broiler farm-sizes has been presented in Table 2. Fixed assets include Land, Broiler Shed, Equipment and Fittings, Pump set, and the like. It reveals that total fixed investment was maximum on an average in large farms (Rs 212767.03), followed by medium (Rs 129549.23) and small farmers (Rs.89754.82) with the overall average of Rs 142576.25. The interest on fixed capital was to the tune of Rs 37311.1 (41.57%), Rs 53998.5 (41.68%) and Rs 93322.5 (43.86%) on large, medium and small broiler farms, respectively with the overall average of Rs 60789.48 (42.64%). The broiler sheds were the main item of costs in buildings. Further, among equipment, feeders plus drinkers were the main components of investment.
Figures in parentheses are percentage to the total.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The total fixed investments per bird have been found the highest on small farms, followed by medium and large farms. The total variable costs as well as total costs per bird have been found highest on small farms, followed by medium and large farms. The total cost of meat production per bird has been observed highest on small broiler farms, followed medium and large farms. The net returns per bird over the variable costs have been recorded the highest on large farms, followed by medium and small farms. This increasing trend of net income with the farm size could be attributed mainly to the economies of scale on the large farms. The production efficiency of broiler farms has increased with farm-size due to better utilization of inputs. On the basis of net present value, benefit-cost ratio and internal rate of return, investment in broiler farming has been found most profitable on large farms, followed by medium and small farms. The small broiler farms have been observed highly sensitive to increase in costs and decrease in net returns. Thus, in nutshell, the broiler farming is a profitable venture and has a bright future in the study area of Imo State agriculture for improving economic status of the farming
This study indicated that growth of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus was not significantly affected by poultry manure. However, it was observed that poultry manure has a significant effect on the yield and yield components of Watermelon.
Effect of poultry manure was shown in most of the growth parameters that the control plot that has no application of poultry manure has the highest mean value such as leaf area, plant height, number of leaves and so on. The differences may be due to rates of decomposition and nutrient release rates and patterns.
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