Causes and Effects of Alcoholism Among Youths
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
General objectives of this study is:
- To know the effect of alcoholism on the youths
- To identify the youths who are addicted to alcoholism.
- To also prefer solutions in reducing the in-take of alcoholism among the youths.
What Is Alcoholism?
Alcoholism is a chronic disease, progressive and often fatal; it is a primary disorder and not a symptom of other diseases or emotional problems. The chemistry of alcohol allows it to affect nearly every type of cell in the body, including those in the central nervous system. In the brain, alcohol interacts with centers responsible for pleasure and other desirable sensations. After prolonged exposure to alcohol, the brain adapts to the changes alcohol makes and becomes dependent on it. For people with alcoholism, drinking becomes the primary medium through which they can deal with people, work, and life. Alcohol dominates their thinking, emotions, and actions. The severity of this disease is influenced by factors such as genetics, psychology, culture, and response to physical pain.
Loss of Control
Alcoholism can develop insidiously; often there is no clear line between problem drinking and alcoholism. The only early indications of alcoholism may be the unpleasant physical responses to withdrawal that occur during even brief periods of abstinence. Sometimes people experience long-term depression or anxiety, insomnia, chronic pain, or personal or work stress that lead to the use of alcohol for relief, but often no extraordinary events have occurred that account for the drinking problem. Alcoholics have little or no control over the quantity they drink or the duration or frequency of their drinking. They are preoccupied with drinking, deny their own addiction, and continue to drink even though they are aware of the dangers. Over time, some people become tolerant to the effects of drinking and require more alcohol to become intoxicated, creating the illusion that they can “hold their liquor.” They have blackouts after drinking and frequent hangovers that cause them to miss work and other normal activities. Alcoholics might drink alone and start early in the day. They periodically quit drinking or switch from hard liquor to beer or wine, but these periods rarely last. Severe alcoholics often have a history of accidents, marital and work instability, and alcohol-related health problems. Episodic violent and abusive incidents involving spouses and children and a history of unexplained or frequent accidents are often signs of drug or alcohol abuse.
What Causes Alcoholism?
People have been drinking alcohol for perhaps 15,000 years. Just drinking steadily and consistently over time can cause a sense of dependence and withdrawal symptoms during periods of abstinence; this physical dependence, however, is not the sole cause of alcoholism. To develop alcoholism, other factors usually come into play, including biology and genetics, culture, and psychology.
Brain Chemistry and Genetic Factors
The craving for alcohol during abstinence, the pain of withdrawal, and the high rate of relapse are due to the brain’s adaptation to and dependence on the changes in its own chemistry caused by long term use of alcohol. Alcohol causes relaxation and euphoria but also acts as a depressant on the central nervous system. Even after years of research, experts still do not know exactly how alcohol affects the brain or how the brain affects alcoholism. Alcohol appears to have major effects upon the hippocampus, an area in the brain associated with learning and memory and the regulation of emotion, sensory processing, appetite, and stress. Alcohol breaks down into products called fatty acid ethyl esters, which appear to inhibit important neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) in the hippocampus. Of particular importance to researchers of alcoholism are the neurotransmitters gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin, which are strongly associated with emotional behavior and cravings. Research indicates that dopamine transmission, particularly, is strongly associated with the rewarding properties of alcohol, nicotine, opiates, and cocaine. Investigators have focused on nerve-cell structures known as dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), which influence the activity of dopamine. Mice with few of these receptors show low interest in and even aversion to alcohol. In people with severe alcoholism, researchers have located a gene that alters the function of DRD2. This gene is also found in people with attention deficit disorder, who have an increased risk for alcoholism, and in people with Tourette’s syndrome and autism. One major study, however, found no connection at all between the DRD2 gene and alcoholism. More work in this area is needed. Researchers are also investigating genes that regulate certain enzymes known as kinases that affect alcohol uptake in the brain as well as genes that affect serotonin. Even if genetic factors can be identified, however, they are unlikely to explain all cases of alcoholism. In fact, lack of genetic protection may play a role in alcoholism. Because alcohol is not found easily in nature, genetic mechanisms to protect against excessive consumption may not have evolved in humans as they frequently have for protection against natural threats.
This chapter presents the methodology employed in gathering data for this research, it also identifies the population of the study, the sampling procedure employed in selecting the population and the instrument of the study.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
Chikun Local Government Area has a population about 770,000 occupying the area according to the National population commission census (2006) and 1.44 square kilometers.
Chikun Local Government Area has the following districts. Ungwan Romi, Mahuta, Ungwan Boro, Barnawa and Kugama districts.
The researcher will like to cover the districts of angwan television which enables him to gets facts.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The chapter presents the data analysis in two section:
Analysis is based on personal characteristics of respondents.
Data analysis based on research question
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. This is a survey research aimed at investigating the problems of alcoholism in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state.
Alcoholism is assuming a dimension that the society can no large ignore. Studies have shown that alcohol consumption is on the increase the world over including developing countries and the studies arises in particular (Chikun Local Government Area).
Despite all the effort being made by government through establishment of bodies agencies and committees to discourage and eradicate the habit of alcoholism the problems still exist and are even becoming rampant all over the country fogeting that such alcoholic as narcotics, haluciogens, stimulant, etc constitute serious hazards to health and social welfare.
Therefore, this study has review a number of issues related to why youths are indulge in alcohol in Chikun Local Government Area Kaduna state. These are based on personal questionnaires and general observation.
An over view of the method employed indicates that personal sense the researcher is presenting factual information on which source responses were provided and analyzed.
The desire of most respondents was to see that alcoholic person is being free of alcohol and live among normal people in the community. This ideal is important because it points out the need for the alcohol addicted youth to be fully integrated into the community life as a normal person.
In order to accomplished these, some recommendation has been made of which it utilized can be of help in changing the lives of the alcoholism youth.
The research is hoped to be of value to the on districts (Ungwan television) concerned, professionals and concerned individual.
Alcoholic never solved problems no matter how far alcohol take you, it is always a round trip, you will get back to where you started when the effect of the alcoholism went off.
Fathers and mothers, young men and women, should keep in mind that the effect of alcohol on them as earlier described and you will see all the reasons why you should say ‘No’ to alcoholism. Alcoholism can run your life, destroy your family, destroy friendship, destroy your society and can even kill you so please “FIGHT” alcoholism and line health lives.
The government federal, state and Local government including Chikun Local Government Area campaign against alcoholism.
The general public should also volunteer to carry out public enlightenment on hazards of dangerous of alcohol. Professionals, such as social workers, doctors nurses, friends of the alcohol victims, parents should also assist in complaining against alcoholism.
It is also recommended the recreational facilities and opportunities be provided so that possibilities of idle movements are eliminated thereby reducing temptation to result to alcohol or drug for entertainment purposes.
Miss campaigns especially showing problems, associated with drug and alcohol abuse to youths and efforts taken in order more advanced society to reduce these problems through public enlightenment campaigns be embarked upon.
Finally, despite the economic problems plaguing the country, government should endeavour to make available to the people educational opportunities so that they better develop themselves. With these recommendation above the researcher believe that there will be a better remedy to the effects of alcoholism.
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