Chemical and Sensory Composition of Local Dried Fish in Ilaje Local Government Ondo State
The Objective of the Study
The objective of the study was to determine the proximate and mineral composition of selected local dried fish obtained in Ilaje local Government of Ondo State.
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits (Flajnik and Kasahara, 2009). Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups (Helfman et al., 2004). Tetra-pods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so sadistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry) (Helfman et al., 2004). Because in this manner the term “fish” is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification (Nelson and Joseph, 2006).
Fish and seafood products, have a high nutritional value regarding beneficial amounts of protein, lipids as well as essential micronutrients. Aquatic animal foods are a rich source of protein and have a lower caloric density, and have a high content of omega 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA) compared to land living animals (Tacon and Metian, 2013). Fish and other seafood have also a well-balanced amino acid composition, contain high proportions of taurine and choline, the vitamins D3 and B12 and the minerals calcium, phosphorus, iodine, and selenium. Furthermore, fish and seafood also might provide significant proportions of vitamin A, iron, and zinc to a population if other sources of these nutrients are scarce (Lund, 2013).
Types of Fish
- White fish (such as cod, stingray, niletilipia, catfish, haddock, plaice, and snakefish e.t.c)
- Oily fish (such as salmon, trout herring, eels and Barracudae.t.c)
- Shellfish (such as lobsters, praws, and crabs e.t.c)
History of Fish
Fish is one of the protein foods that needs careful handling (Eyo, 2004). This is because fish spoils easily after capture due to the high tropical temperature which accelerates the activities of bacteria, enzymes and chemical oxidation of fat in the fish. Due to poor handling, about 30 – 50% of fish harvested are wasted in Nigeria. These losses could be minimized by the application of proper handling, processing and preservation techniques (Bate and Bendall, 2010). Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish including hand gathering, spearing, netting and trapping. Oceans help us in multiple ways and should be of everyone’s concern, not just that of researchers. They form the largest ecosystem and life support system of the Earth. Covering about 71% of the surface of this planet, oceans generate more than half of the oxygen we breathe, hold 97% of the world’s water, regulate climate, supply food and pharmaceuticals, provide millions of jobs, offer unlimited recreation, and allow trade and transport (Bokova 2013).
The value of goods and services originating from coastal and marine environments is about $2.5 trillion each year, making oceans the seventh largest economy in the world which helps in the livelihoods of 10–12% of the world’s population (Northrop 2018). The total asset value is estimated to be $24 trillion (WWF 2015). Food security is a major global challenge. How much it matters is not difficult to understand from some basic facts and figures. Out of 7.6 billion people in the world, nearly 821 million are suffering from undernourishment or chronic food deprivation (FAO 2018).
Nutrient Composition of Fish
Omega-3 fatty acids in fish and lipids in human nutrition, in pre-agricultural times, the foods available to humans were game meat, fish, shellfish, green leafy vegetables, fruits, berries, honey, and nuts (Simopoulos, 2003). This diet, containing higher amounts of n-3 PUFA and lower amounts of n-6 PUFA than modern diets, shaped the genetics of human nutrition. After the agricultural revolution though, intake of cereals increased enormously. Cereals are rich in n-6 PUFA and low in n-3 PUFA and, as a consequence, the n-6/n-3 PUFA balance to which humans are adapted has changed dramatically over the last 10,000 years (Simopoulos, 2002a).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Local dried fish (Nile-tilapia and Barracuda) was obtained in Igbokoda local market in Ilaje local government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The samples were taken to the Food Chemistry Laboratory of Food Science and Technology (FST), where the proximate, vitamins, mineral and sensory composition were analyzed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1: Proximate Composition of Fish Samples
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Drying is one of the oldest ways of preserving fish, the study focuses on the nutritional composition of local dried fish purchased from Ilaje Local Government, the proximate composition of the fish samples revealed that the moisture content of the fish samples was low which indicates the extension of the fish shelf life for some particular period of time, the protein, ash, and fat content of the fish samples were considerably high which indicates that drying not only preserved the fish for long period of time but also retain the nutritional composition of fish though lower than fresh fish due to the effect of heat applied during processing. The minerals and vitamins composition of the fish samples were also very high, Barracuda was observed to have the higher mineral composition compared to Nile-tilapia while vice versa is the case for vitamin composition. Nile-tilapia was preferred better in terms of sensory attributes
Based on this research study, it is therefore recommended that drying as a means of preserving fish should be encouraged because it does not only extend the shelf life of the food product for sometimes but also retain the nutritional composition of fish, and it is also cheap to practice. Due to the nutritional attributes of dried fish, consumption and the uses of dried fish in preparing special delicacy should be encouraged since it serve as a perfect substitute for meat.
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