Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour Spiced With Ginger

Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour Spiced With Ginger

Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour Spiced With Ginger

Chapter One

Aims and Objectives

  • To produce biscuits from wheat flour spiced with ginger
  • To evaluate the chemical composition of the biscuits produced from wheat spiced with ginger
  • To evaluate the sensory properties of the biscuits produced




Wheat (Triticum spp) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the near east but now cultivated worldwide. In 2013, world population was 713 million ton, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (1,016 tons) and rice (745 million tons) (FAO, 2015).

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important component of the human diet and is used in the production of many food products including bread, biscuits, noodles, steamed bread and cakes, providing energy based on the high contents of protein and carbohydrate. Wheat products contain high levels of antioxidants mostly coming from Phenolies, which confer protection against cancer and heart diseases. Wheat was the second most produced cereal in 2009; world production in that year was 682 million tons, after maize (817 million tons). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined.

Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein content than other cereals, maize (corn) or rice. In term of total production used for food, it is currently second to rice as the main human food crops and ahead of maize (Nutrient Data Laboratory United Department of Agriculture).

Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) are suspected of being carcinogenic and causing liver damage. It is believed that an increased intake of food, which is rich in natural anti-oxidants, is associated with a lower risk of degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

Origin and Distribution of Wheat

Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms (sports) of wheat were referentially chosen by farmers.

At the beginning of recorded history, wheat was already an established crop whose origin was unknown. There is however some evidence that cultivate of wheat started about 6000 years ago in the Syria-Palestine area and spread to Egypt, India, Russia, Turkey and Central Europe from where it spread to other countries and continents. According to (Olugbemi, 1998), countries that produce wheat today include Russia, Switzer land, the United States of America, Belgium, Canada, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, Peru, Australia, Chile, New Zealand and Nigeria. There are different types of wheat, these include the hard red spring, hard red winter, durum, soft red and spring/winter wheat. Others include Manitoba and English soft wheat (Nnenne, 1998).

Wheat grains are ovoid in shape. The wheat is a seed, which is fitted for reproducing the plant from which it came. The germ is an embryo plant, with a radical, which can grow into a root system and a plumule, which can develop into stems, leaves and ears.

Composition of Wheat Grain

Like any seed, the wheat kernel is a complex structure with many individual components, however with respect into three general anatomical regions. The outer protective layers of the kernel are collectively called the brain. The brain comprises about 14% of the kernel by weight, and is high in fiber and ash (mineral) content.

The germ, the embryonic wheat plant, comprises only about 3% of the kernel. Most of the lipids and many of the essential nutrients in the kernel are concentrated in the starchy or storage endosperm, which provides the energy and protein for the developing wheat plant. It is characterized by its high starch and moderately high protein (i.e gluten) content.

The endosperm constitutes the major portion of all kernels and is the primary constituent of flour. Finally a single, highly specialized layer of endosperm cells form a border between the starchy endosperm and the bran. This layer, called the aleurone, is usually considered part of the endosperm but it is biologically much more active and subsequently, contains high enzyme activity.

Because of its composition activity and location, it can exert a variety of negative effects on the acceptability of flour. Consequently, it is generally removed as part of the bran during most flour milling operations; in fact millers consider the aleurone to be part of the bran (Kent, 1993).





Wheat (Triticum spp) used in the research work was purchased from Oja Oba market in Owo, Ondo State. The wheat was purchased wholesome, i.e. it was free from rot and had no physical damage. The milk powder, sugar, margarine, salt, egg, baking powder and ginger were purchased from Oja Oba market, Owo, Ondo State. Equipment, chemical reagents and other facilities used in the research were obtained from the laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.




Table 4.1: Proximate Composition of Biscuits produced from wheat flour spices with ginger





Result from this work show that ginger (Zingiber officinale) powder could be used in the production of quality biscuits. Also, ginger powder could be used for substituting wheat flour up to 30% level in production of biscuits without adversely affecting sensory attributes of the product. Biscuits made from higher levels of ginger powder substitution had average mean scores ranging from approximately 6.00-8.00% for most of the attributes; they were fairly accepted by the judges. Asides the control sample, sample WGC was the most accepted biscuits sample by the judges and had higher ratings in test, aroma and texture with scores approximately 7.50-8.00% for each attributes. The ginger powder also impacted a very good color and aroma to the biscuits. The use of wheat flour to produce convenience foods like biscuits will boost its production, utilization as well as the income of farmers and help in utilization of wheat.


            There should be more studies done to improve the texture and crispness of the biscuits produce from Triticum spp flour to enhance the acceptability of the product.


  • Abdel-Aal, E.S.M. (1993). Select Nutritional. Physical and Sensory Characteristics of pan and Flats breads prepared from composite flours containing fatabean. Plants foods for Human Nutrition. 51: 409-414.
  • Adegunwa, M.K., Okaka, J.C and Isieh, M.I. (2015). Development and quality evaluation of Cowpea-Wheat biscuit, Nigerian Food Journal, 8: 56-62.Ihenkoroye, A. I., and Ngoddy, P. O, (2005). Integrated food science and technology for the topic. Macmillan publisher p288-289.
  • Afzal, M., Al-Hadidi, D., Menon, M., Pesek, J. and Dhami, M.S. (2001). Ginger: an ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review. Drug Metabol Drug Interact; 18: 159-190.
  • Aggarwal, B.B. and Shishodia, S. (2006). Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol; 71: 1397-1421.
  • Ali, B.H., Blunden, G., Tanira, M.O. and Nemmar, A. (2008). Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem Toxicol; 46: 409-420.
  • Amandikwa, C. (2012) “Proximate and functional properties of open air, solar and oven dried Cocoyam flour”, International Journal of Agricultural and Rural development, 15(2):  988-994.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C.) (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburgs, MD, pp. 215-275.
  • Bode, A.M., Ma, W.Y., Surh, Y.J. and Dong, Z. (2001). Inhibition of epidermal growth factor induced cell transformation and activator protein 1 activation by [6]-gingerol. Cancer Res; 61: 850–3.
  • Bone, M.E., Wilkinson, D.J., Young, J.R., McNeil, J. and Charlton, S. (2000). Ginger root: A New Anti-Emetic, the Effect of Ginger Root or Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Major Gynaecological Surgery. Anesthesia; 45: 669-671.