Environmental Management Project Topics

Circular Economy Strategies for Reducing Plastic Waste and Pollution. FCT Abuja

Circular Economy Strategies for Reducing Plastic Waste and Pollution. Fct Abuja

Circular Economy Strategies for Reducing Plastic Waste and Pollution. FCT Abuja


Objectives of the Study

This research is guided by three specific objectives, all of which are addressed in the past tense as they are the intended outcomes of the study:

  1. To assess the current state of plastic pollution in FCT Abuja, Nigeria, by analyzing the extent and sources of plastic waste in the region.
  2. To investigate the potential impact of implementing circular economy strategies in FCT Abuja on the reduction of plastic waste and pollution.
  3. To recommend actionable policy measures and behavioural changes for the effective adoption of circular economy practices, specifically tailored to FCT Abuja.



Conceptual Framework

Plastic Pollution and Its Environmental Implications

Plastic pollution is a pressing global environmental concern that transcends geographical boundaries and affects ecosystems, human health, and overall quality of life (Ndou & Rampedi, 2022). It encompasses various forms and types of plastic waste that disrupt the natural environment and have detrimental consequences for both wildlife and humans. The scourge of plastic pollution in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria, is of particular interest due to its widespread impact (Aliu et al., 2022).

Plastic pollution is characterized by the presence of plastic waste in environments where it does not belong. This pollution can take various forms, including plastic bottles, bags, packaging materials, and microplastics (Kaza et al., 2018). Plastic pollution can originate from various sources, including household waste, industrial production, and inadequate waste disposal practices (Öztaş & Bektaş, 2022). It is important to differentiate between macroplastics, which are larger plastic items visible to the naked eye, and microplastics, which are tiny plastic particles often measuring less than 5 millimetres in size (Plastinina et al., 2019).

The consequences of plastic pollution on the environment are far-reaching and multifaceted. Plastic waste often finds its way into natural water bodies, leading to contamination and degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Simatele et al., 2017). Plastic debris in oceans and rivers poses a threat to marine life, as animals can ingest or become entangled in plastic waste, resulting in injury and death (Batlles-De-La-Fuente et al., 2020). Furthermore, plastic pollution affects soil quality and can impede agricultural productivity by interfering with the nutrient and water-holding capacity of the soil (Malinauskaite et al., 2017).

One of the most concerning aspects of plastic pollution is the long-lasting persistence of plastics in the environment. Plastics are designed to be durable and resistant to decomposition, which makes them highly persistent. It can take hundreds of years for plastics to break down, and even when they do, they often fragment into smaller pieces, contributing to the problem of microplastics (Liberati et al., 2019). These small plastic particles are pervasive in various ecosystems and are challenging to remove once they are present (Sharma et al., 2021).

In FCT Abuja, the challenges posed by plastic pollution are further compounded by rapid urbanization, population growth, and inadequate waste management practices (Oyebode, Ajiboshin, & Okewole, 2017). As the capital of Nigeria, FCT Abuja has a unique responsibility to address this issue and set an example for the rest of the country (Kehinde et al., 2020). To combat plastic pollution effectively, circular economy strategies are being considered as a holistic approach to waste management (Van Fan et al., 2020).

In summary, plastic pollution is a global crisis with severe consequences for the environment, ecosystems, and human well-being. The definition and types of plastic pollution encompass a wide range of plastic waste forms, including microplastics. The environmental consequences of plastic pollution are extensive and include contamination of water bodies and degradation of soil quality. The persistence of plastics in the environment exacerbates the problem. FCT Abuja, as Nigeria’s capital, plays a crucial role in addressing this issue, and circular economy strategies offer a promising approach to combat plastic pollution in the region.

Circular Economy Strategies

In the context of addressing plastic pollution, a circular economy represents a transformative approach that seeks to redefine the way resources are managed and utilized. Central to this approach are several fundamental principles, including designing products for durability and recyclability. This means creating products that are built to last, can be easily repaired, and have components that can be recycled or reused. By extending the lifespan of products and reducing the need for new manufacturing, this principle directly contributes to reducing plastic waste (Bianchini, Rossi, & Pellegrini, 2019).





This chapter presents a comprehensive research methodology designed to investigate the adoption of circular economy strategies in addressing plastic pollution in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The choice of research methodology plays a pivotal role in ensuring the study’s validity, reliability, and ability to contribute significantly to the existing body of knowledge. This chapter addresses the research design, target population, sampling technique, sources and methods of data collection, data analysis method, validity and reliability assessment, and ethical considerations guiding the research process.

Research Design

In this study, a quantitative survey research design has been chosen as the primary method for data collection and analysis. This design aligns with Saunders et al. (2019), who suggest that it allows for the structured collection of data through the administration of questionnaires, enabling the measurement of key variables. The use of a quantitative survey design is justified by its ability to gather empirical data that can be quantified and subjected to statistical analysis. This approach is essential in providing objective and measurable insights into the adoption of circular economy strategies in the context of plastic pollution and waste management (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).

The quantitative survey design is particularly well-suited for this study as it enables the collection of data from a large sample, in this case, 1200 respondents. Anderson, Fontinha, and Robson (2020) emphasize the significance of planning the research process and choosing a design that can accommodate the target population effectively. Given the scale and scope of the study, the quantitative survey design is a practical choice for gathering information from a substantial number of respondents. The research design allows for the efficient administration of structured questionnaires to a diverse group of participants, ensuring a comprehensive data collection process(Creswell & Creswell, 2018).

Furthermore, the quantitative survey research design is appropriate because it allows for the systematic exploration of the research objectives. Bell, Bryman, and Harley (2019) highlight that it is essential to align the research design with the research objectives to ensure the study’s success. In this context, the objectives are focused on understanding the adoption of circular economy strategies in the context of plastic pollution and waste management in FCT Abuja, Nigeria. The quantitative survey design enables researchers to collect data that directly address these objectives, as it involves the structured measurement of variables related to circular economy practices.



Data Presentation



Summary of Findings

The research findings presented in this study offer valuable insights into the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs of respondents in FCT Abuja regarding plastic pollution and circular economy strategies. The study encompassed a diverse group of respondents, representing various age groups, educational backgrounds, and household compositions, providing a comprehensive view of the community’s opinions. In summary, the research’s key findings can be categorized into three main areas: plastic pollution awareness, the significance of circular economy practices, and the role of policy and behaviour changes in fostering sustainability.

The study began by exploring respondents’ awareness of the extent of plastic pollution in FCT Abuja and its sources. Tables 4.8 and 4.9 indicated a substantial consensus among respondents, with a majority strongly agreeing or agreeing that plastic pollution significantly affects environmental quality and primarily originates from inadequate waste management practices. These findings highlight the widespread recognition of plastic pollution as a critical environmental issue in the region. The results reveal that a significant portion of the respondents are acutely aware of the detrimental impact of plastic pollution on ecosystems, which is a vital starting point for any effective intervention.

The second area of focus was the perceived effectiveness of circular economy strategies in reducing plastic waste and pollution. The findings from Tables 4.12 to 4.15 demonstrate an overall consensus among respondents that circular economy practices, including recycling, reuse, and waste reduction policies, play a crucial role in addressing plastic pollution. Respondents strongly agreed or agreed with the potential of these practices to reduce plastic waste, further emphasizing the community’s endorsement of circular economy principles. These findings suggest that the community sees the implementation of circular economy practices as a viable solution to mitigate plastic pollution in FCT Abuja.

The third area of exploration pertained to the role of government policies, public awareness campaigns, community involvement, and individual behavioural changes in fostering the adoption of circular economy practices. The results from Tables 4.16 to 4.19 reveal that respondents overwhelmingly recognize the importance of these factors. Respondents strongly agreed or agreed that strong governmental policies, public awareness campaigns, community involvement, and individual behavioural changes are essential components of successful circular economy practices. These findings underscore the community’s belief in the collective effort required to drive sustainable change and highlight the interplay between policy, education, and individual actions in advancing circular economy initiatives.

Integrating these findings, a comprehensive narrative emerges. The respondents in FCT Abuja exhibit a strong awareness of plastic pollution, acknowledging its significant impact on the environment. This awareness provides a solid foundation for the community’s commitment to addressing the issue. Furthermore, there is an evident belief in the effectiveness of circular economy practices, which aligns with the global shift towards sustainable and environmentally friendly practices. Respondents recognize the power of recycling, reusing materials, and reducing waste in reducing plastic pollution, underscoring their support for circular economy principles.

The findings also underscore the importance of an ecosystem of support for successful circular economy practices. This ecosystem includes strong governmental policies that promote sustainability, public awareness campaigns that inform and educate citizens, active community involvement in decision-making and implementation, and individual behavioural changes that align with sustainable living. The high level of agreement regarding these factors suggests that FCT Abuja’s community sees the interdependence of these components and acknowledges the need for coordinated efforts.

In summary, the research findings reflect a community in FCT Abuja that is acutely aware of plastic pollution as a critical environmental challenge. Respondents support the adoption of circular economy practices as a means to combat plastic pollution, emphasizing the importance of recycling, reuse, waste reduction, and strong governmental policies. These findings underscore the significance of collaborative efforts, including government initiatives, public education, community engagement, and individual actions, in achieving sustainability goals. The collective consciousness of the community, as revealed in these findings, is a promising sign of its readiness to embrace circular economy strategies and contribute to a more sustainable and plastic pollution-free future in FCT Abuja.


In conclusion, the results of the hypotheses testing in this study provide meaningful insights into the perceptions and beliefs of respondents in FCT Abuja regarding plastic pollution and circular economy strategies. These findings shed light on the community’s collective stance on these critical environmental issues.

Firstly, the study’s results affirm the high level of awareness and concern among respondents about plastic pollution in FCT Abuja. This awareness is underscored by the majority of respondents strongly agreeing or agreeing that plastic pollution significantly affects the environmental quality in the region and primarily originates from inadequate waste management practices. This indicates that the community recognizes the urgent need for action to mitigate the detrimental impacts of plastic pollution.

Secondly, the study’s findings demonstrate a strong belief among respondents in the potential of circular economy practices to reduce plastic waste and pollution. Respondents expressed their support for recycling, reuse, and waste reduction, aligning with global efforts to transition towards sustainable and eco-friendly practices. This alignment is a positive sign, indicating the community’s readiness to embrace circular economy strategies.

Finally, the respondents’ overwhelming agreement regarding the importance of government policies, public awareness campaigns, community involvement, and individual behavioural changes further emphasizes the interconnectedness of these factors in fostering sustainable practices. The collective endorsement of these components highlights the essential role each plays in the successful implementation of circular economy initiatives.

These findings collectively depict a community in FCT Abuja that is not only aware of the challenges posed by plastic pollution but is also prepared to take action by embracing circular economy principles and supporting the necessary policy measures and behavioural changes. The results affirm the potential for a more sustainable and environmentally conscious future in FCT Abuja.


The following recommendations were made in this study:

  1. Encourage Comprehensive Education: Implement extensive educational programs and workshops targeted at various age groups and educational levels within FCT Abuja. These programs should focus on raising awareness about plastic pollution, circular economy strategies, and their crucial roles in sustainable living.
  2. Strengthen Government Policies: Develop and implement stringent policies aimed at effective waste management and reducing the use of single-use plastics. These regulations should be complemented by incentives and penalties to encourage compliance and drive behavioural change.
  3. Foster Community Engagement: Promote community involvement in environmental initiatives by creating platforms for active participation. Encourage local community and environmental groups, creating forums for dialogue and collaboration, fostering a sense of shared responsibility for sustainable practices.
  4. Enhance Recycling Infrastructure: Invest in better waste management infrastructure to facilitate easy recycling and establish collection points for various types of recyclable materials across the FCT Abuja region.
  5. Public Awareness Campaigns: Launch wide-reaching and targeted public awareness campaigns using various media platforms, promoting the importance of reducing plastic use and the adoption of circular economy practices.
  6. Support Circular Economy Initiatives: Offer financial support or incentives to businesses and entrepreneurs engaging in circular economy practices, encouraging innovation and adoption of sustainable solutions.
  7. Encourage Research and Development: Support research initiatives aimed at discovering and promoting innovative, sustainable materials that can substitute plastics, fostering local innovation and investment in eco-friendly alternatives.
  8. Community-Based Recycling Programs: Introduce and promote community-based recycling initiatives, empowering local groups to manage their waste, facilitating a sense of ownership, and promoting responsible waste disposal.
  9. Involve Educational Institutions: Collaborate with educational institutions to embed environmental studies and sustainability principles within curriculums, fostering a culture of environmental responsibility among the youth.
  10. Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation: Regularly monitor and evaluate the progress of environmental initiatives, conducting periodic surveys to assess the community’s perception and understanding of environmental challenges and the effectiveness of adopted strategies. This ongoing evaluation will enable fine-tuning of strategies and ensure a sustained positive impact on plastic pollution reduction in FCT Abuja.

Implications of the Study

This study on plastic pollution and circular economy strategies in FCT Abuja carries significant implications for both the region and the broader context of environmental sustainability. Firstly, the findings reveal that plastic pollution is a substantial concern in FCT Abuja, with a substantial proportion of respondents acknowledging its impact on environmental quality and ecosystems. This underscores the urgent need for concrete actions to mitigate plastic pollution’s detrimental effects on the region’s environment and biodiversity.

Secondly, the study highlights the potential of circular economy strategies in reducing plastic waste and pollution. With the majority of respondents agreeing that such strategies can be effective, it offers hope for the region’s ability to transition towards more sustainable waste management practices. The implications extend beyond FCT Abuja, serving as a valuable example for other regions seeking to combat plastic pollution through circular economy approaches.

Thirdly, the study underscores the importance of individual behavioural changes and community engagement in realizing the goals of circular economy initiatives. This implies that for such strategies to succeed, they must be supported by active participation from local communities. The findings call for the mobilization of not just government bodies but also grassroots efforts and local environmental groups.

Lastly, the study emphasizes the need for stringent government policies and regulations to guide and enforce sustainable practices. These regulations should extend to reducing single-use plastics, promoting recycling, and supporting eco-friendly alternatives. The implications here extend to the role of governments and regulatory bodies in creating an environment conducive to sustainable practices.

In summary, this study’s implications underscore the urgency of addressing plastic pollution in FCT Abuja through circular economy strategies, emphasizing community involvement, behavioural change, and governmental support. The findings also hold relevance for regions globally grappling with plastic pollution, as they shed light on effective approaches and emphasize the collective responsibility of individuals, communities, and governments in achieving sustainability and environmental preservation.

Contribution to Knowledge

This study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge on plastic pollution and circular economy strategies in several ways. Firstly, it provides valuable insights into the current state of plastic pollution in FCT Abuja, Nigeria, offering a detailed assessment of the extent and sources of plastic waste in the region. This information serves as a foundational understanding of the problem, which can inform further research and policy decisions. By quantifying the perceptions of residents, the study offers a unique perspective on the issue, helping bridge the gap between scientific assessments and public awareness.

Secondly, the study contributes to knowledge by examining the potential impact of implementing circular economy strategies on the reduction of plastic waste and pollution. The findings indicate that a substantial number of respondents believe in the effectiveness of such strategies, shedding light on the feasibility of circular economy practices in addressing plastic pollution. This insight is valuable for regions beyond FCT Abuja that are considering similar interventions to manage plastic waste.

Thirdly, the research underscores the role of actionable policy measures and behavioural changes in the successful adoption of circular economy practices. By exploring respondents’ perceptions of the importance of these factors, the study highlights the need for a multi-pronged approach to tackle plastic pollution. This contribution aids in shaping a holistic view of circular economy adoption, acknowledging the socio-cultural and behavioural aspects that influence its success.

Furthermore, the study’s findings emphasize the critical role of public awareness campaigns and community involvement in the context of circular economy practices. This contribution reinforces the significance of engaging local communities and raising awareness to facilitate sustainable behavioural changes. It underscores the need for collaborative efforts involving government bodies, environmental organizations, and residents in driving circular economy initiatives.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Building upon the findings of this study and the gaps identified in the research, several suggestions for further studies in the field of plastic pollution and circular economy strategies in FCT Abuja and beyond can be considered:

  1. Longitudinal Studies: Future research could benefit from conducting longitudinal studies to track changes in plastic pollution levels and the effectiveness of circular economy interventions over an extended period. Long-term data collection would provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of these strategies and how they evolve.
  2. Comparative Analysis: Comparative studies across different regions in Nigeria or other countries could help assess the effectiveness of circular economy strategies and their adaptability to various environmental, social, and economic contexts. A comparative analysis can reveal best practices and highlight the importance of localized approaches.
  3. Behavioural Research: Deeper investigations into the behavioural aspects of plastic consumption and disposal, as well as the motivations behind the adoption of circular economy practices, can provide insights into designing more effective interventions. Understanding the factors that drive or hinder sustainable behaviours is crucial for policy development.
  4. Policy Assessment: Evaluating the effectiveness of existing policies and regulations related to plastic pollution and circular economy strategies in FCT Abuja is essential. Future studies can assess the implementation and enforcement of policies and recommend improvements based on real-world experiences.
  5. Innovation and Technology: Research on innovative technologies and approaches for plastic waste management and recycling can contribute to sustainable solutions. Investigating emerging trends in waste-to-resource technologies and their applicability to the local context is a relevant area of study.
  6. Social and Cultural Aspects: Exploring the role of culture, traditions, and social norms in influencing plastic consumption and waste management practices is critical. Studies that delve into the cultural dimensions of plastic pollution and circular economy adoption can inform more culturally sensitive interventions.
  7. Education and Awareness Interventions: Research focused on the design and impact of educational and awareness campaigns targeting different demographic groups is necessary. Understanding which methods and messages are most effective in promoting behavioural change can guide the development of future campaigns.
  8. Community Engagement Models: Investigating successful models of community involvement in circular economy initiatives is crucial. Identifying community-driven solutions and partnerships that empower residents to actively participate in waste reduction efforts can have a significant impact.
  9. Economic Assessments: Economic studies that analyze the cost-effectiveness of circular economy strategies in comparison to traditional waste management systems can provide a robust foundation for decision-makers and businesses looking to invest in sustainable practices.
  10. Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration: Research that examines the dynamics of collaboration among government bodies, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and local communities can shed light on the challenges and opportunities in implementing circular economy strategies. This can help in designing more effective multi-stakeholder partnerships.


  • Abila, B., & Kantola, J. (2023). Municipal Solid Waste Management Problems in Nigeria: Evolving Knowledge Management Solution. Int. J. Environ. Ecol. Eng., 7, 303–308.
  • Ali, Y.; Jokhio, D.H.; Dojki, A.A.; Rehman, O.U.; Khan, F.; Salman, A. Adoption of a circular economy for food waste management in the context of a developing country. Waste Manag. Res., 2022, 40, 676–684.
  • Aliu, I.R., Adeyemi, O.E., & Adebayo, A. (2022). Municipal Household Solid Waste Collection Strategies in an African Megacity: Analysis of Public-Private Partnership Performance in Lagos. Waste Manag. Res., 32, 67–78
  • Al-Salem, S.; Leeke, G.A.; El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Van Haute, M.; Constantinou, A.; Dewil, R.; Baeyens, J. On the implementation of the circular economy route for E-waste management: A critical review and
  • Ander, E. (2021). The OECD Inventory of Circular Economy Indicators. OECD: Paris, France.
  • Anderson, V., Fontinha, R., & Robson, F. (2020). Research Methods in Human Resource Management: Investigating a Business Issue (4th ed.). CIPD.
  • Batista, M., Caiado, R.G.G., Quelhas, O.L.G., Lima, G.B.A., Filho, W.L., & Yparraguirre, I.T.R. (2021). A Framework for Sustainable and Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management: Barriers and Critical Factors to Developing Countries. J. Clean. Prod., 312, 127516.
  • Batlles-De-La-Fuente, A., Belmonte-Ureña, L.J., Plaza-Úbeda, J.A., & Abad-Segura, E. (2020). Research Trends of the Management of Solid Waste in the Context of Circular Economy. In Handbook of Solid Waste Management: Sustainability through Circular Economy, pp. 1–33. Springer: Singapore.
  • Beiske, B. (2017). Research Methods: Uses and Limitations of questionnaires, interviews, and case studies. GRIN Verlag.
  • Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2019). Business Research Methods (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Bianchini, A., Rossi, J., & Pellegrini, M. (2019). Overcoming the Main Barriers of Circular Economy Implementation through a New Visualization Tool for Circular Business Models. Sustainability, 11, 6614.
  • Charmaz, K. (2016). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. Sage Publications.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (5th ed.). SAGE.
  • Debrah, J.K.; Teye, G.K.; Dinis, M.A.P. Barriers and Challenges to Waste Management Hindering the Circular Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Urban Sci., 2022, 6, 57.
  • Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Jackson, P. R. (2018). Management and Business Research. Sage.
  • Eisenhardt, K. M. (2015). Building Theories From Case Study Research. Academy Of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.
  • Eisenhardt, K. M. (2015). Building Theories From Case Study Research. Academy Of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!