Class Size and Resources on Students Academic Achievement and Attitude in Computer Studies of Senior Secondary School in Alimosho LGA
Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this study was to explore the relationship between class size, resources and students’ academic performance. Other specific objectives are:
- To investigate if there is any significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance.
- To determine the effect of large class size on male students academic achievement.
- To find out if small class size have effect on female students’ academic performance.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
Class size may be defined as the number of students per teacher in a given class or the population of a class (Ajayi et al., 2017). Mokobia and Okoye (2011) explained that educators universally have identified class size as important and desirable attribute of effective educational system. Consequently, debate has continued in the educational literature stakeholders such as academics, policy makers and parents over the educational consequences of class size. Some researchers have maintained that class size is a tool which can be adopted in measuring performance of educational system (Kedney, 2013). According to Imoke (2006) optimum class size implies rational coordination of educational infrastructures, subject to available number of students in order to attain high level of productivity According to Doyle (2014), in modern day education, the focus is on the needs, interest and comfort of the students. Thus, managing class size allows students to learn effectively without disturbing one another (Garret, 2008). While a number of studies have found support for the importance of class size on student achievement, others strongly disprove this claim concluding that class size has little or no impact on objective student outcomes. Copious studies have investigated the influence of class size on student attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. The devastating issue is that limited number of these studies has focused on elementary school effects of class size on student achievement (Altinok and Kingdon, 2012). The orthodox wisdom among parents, teachers, school administrators, and policy makers is that, smaller class size translates to improvements in student learning and outcomes. This orthodox wisdom, however, has not been universally supported by realistic evidence (Aturupane et al., 2013). It has been argued that increasing the intake of senior secondary school students in a large class has numerous benefits for the schools and the country as a whole. It helps to reduce the cost of building additional classrooms of which few schools as well as the country have the resources to fund additional classrooms and teachers. Also there is usually high energy, fun and excitement in large class size in public senior secondary schools. In addition, students learn to work well in groups since group work is a necessity in large class size (Azigwe et al., 2016; Owolabi et al., 2012).
Smaller class sizes create more intimate settings and therefore can increase teacher-students bonding which has been shown to have a positive great effect on student‟s academic performance and can lead to attainment of educational objectives. Crosnoe et al (2004) and Krafter (2004) revealed that class size above 40 have negative effect on students‟ academic performance in school.
Fafunwa (2010) postulated that there is a big gap in quality, resulting from large number of students in a crowded classroom, using inadequate and obsolete equipment and with disillusion teachers. Researchers such as Devis and Mayuri (2003), Egim (2003) and Obong (2007) revealed that quality of learning facilities available within the learning environment has positive relationship with the quality of teaching and learning activities which in turn influence students‟ academic performance.
The relative social class of a student also affects his/her academic achievement. Students from low socio-economic backgrounds who attend poorly funded schools most a times do no perform as well as students from higher social classes (Eamon, 2005).
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of students are sampled.
A survey research design according to Osuala (2001) centers on individual and their opinion, belief, motivation and behavior. The design was considered suitable since the study will solicit information from respondents in Juniorr Secondary Schools in Alimosho LGA in Lagos state where Computer studies is taught.
Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description. The target population for this study comprised students of selected secondary schools in Alimosho LGA in Lagos state.
This study was carried out to examine the influence of learning environment on academic performance using Alimosho LGA in Lagos state as a case study. Five(5) secondary schools were purposively selected which form the population of the study.
SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION
A study sample is simply a systematic selected part of a population that infers its result on the population. In essence, it is that part of a whole that represents the whole and its members share characteristics in like similitude (Udoyen, 2019). In this study, the researcher adopted the convenience sampling method to determine the sample size.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of Two Hundred (200) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which were returned and validated. For this study a total of 200 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Class size reduction is an issue in education of significance as it is a strategy that is currently being used within many school districts at the elementary school level in an attempt to increase achievement for students. Increased accountability is being placed upon schools to make to use their limited funding efficiently and effectively increasing student academic performance. It is vital that some schools especially private ones have contemporary research to use in the hiring of additional teachers to create smaller learning environments. While there are numerous studies on smaller class sizes and their affect on academic performance, the results of the studies are inconsistent in their findings, leaving educational leaders with no definitive answer regarding the relationship between class size and student academic achievement. Confounding the data is the varied methodology of the studies, making the generalizability of results arduous.
This in-depth study analyzed the relationship between class size and academic performance within . The findings of this study provide educational leaders with data regarding class size and academic achievement, resulting in the continuation of class size reduction.
The study also reveals that:
- Smaller classes result in increased teacher-student contact.
- Students in smaller classes show more appreciation for one another and more desire to participate in classroom activities.
- In smaller classes, more learning activities take place.
- Smaller classes foster greater interaction among students, helping them understand one another and increasing their desire to assist one another. Smaller classes allow for potential disciplinary problems to be identified and resolved more quickly.
- Smaller classes result in higher teacher morale and reduced stress. Less retention, fewer referrals to special education, and fewer dropouts are the ultimate rewards of class-size reduction.
From the findings of the study It is therefore recommended that our educational policy makers should formulate policies that will ensure that the number of students in a class should not exceed 30 students. This in turn will make the government to provide enough classrooms for the schools. The Parent Teacher Association (PTA), philanthropist and other charitable organizations are also implored to compliment the effort of the government to boost the performance of students in Computer studies by building more classes.
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