Comparative Analysis of Daily Sun and the Guardian Newspapers’ Coverage of the Nigeria Youths Migrations
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To examine and compare the emphasis and tone employed by the Daily Sun and The Guardian in their coverage of Nigerian youth migration.
- To assess the extent to which the newspapers represent the challenges faced by migrating Nigerian youth.
- To explore how the Daily Sun and The Guardian present government responses and policies related to youth migration.
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
The concept of migration
Migration could be internal or external. It is internal when the movement is within from one part of the country to the other, or external, when it involves moving from one’s country to another country. According to scholars (Asiwaju 1976; Bilger and Kraler 2005; IOM 2005; Wapmuk, Akinkuotu and Ibonye 2014; Flahaux and De Haas 2016; and Jacomella 2010), migration could be short term circular migration, educational migration, and short term mobility linked to selling of agricultural goods. There are ongoing debates on how different forms of movement can be classified, as they do not always have clear demarcations. Movement can be: within or across borders; voluntary (for work, study or family reasons) or forced (as a result of conflict or natural disasters); regular (with documentation) or irregular (without documentation); and temporary, seasonal or longer term/permanent (Asiwaju, 1976). But IOM (2016:22-23) contends that migration involves movement of people across a recognised political boundary to establish permanent or semipermanent residence, adding that six months residence in a new location is enough to categorise one as a migrant. Nigerian migrants in African countries mostly live in West Africa and Middle Africa whereas their most preferred destinations in Europe are the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Germany and Ireland (IOM, 2016). The United States was the single most important destination of Nigerian migrants in 2013, as it had been since 1990, with 252,172 or about 25 per cent of all Nigerian emigrants. This is a clear manifestation of the superb opportunities offered by the United States with respect to employment, education and training, and social and cultural identification compared with other countries in the world (IOM, 2016:22-23). 5 These migrations, according to UNDP (2010:10), involve family re-union, education, tourism and labour; involuntary migration encompassing internally displaced persons (IDPs), trafficked/abducted, asylum seekers and refugees; and undocumented migration comprising smuggled, bonded labour, irregular/undocumented labour migrations and illegal adoptions. However, at any given time, migrants can shift between categories. There has been on-going argument that just as development is perceived as the outcome of migration, migration can also be perceived as the outcome of development (Wapmuk, Akinkuotu and Ibonye 2014). Increasing income, education and access to information networks generally increases people’s capacities to migrate. So, African migration is not essentially driven by poverty, violence and underdevelopment as previously held, but rather should be explained from the process of development and social transformation which have increased African’s capabilities and aspirations to migrate (Flahaux and De Haas, 2016). The theory of pull and push with their attendant vulnerabilities (UNDP, 2010:27; Thet, 2014:10) have been employed to explain the whys of migration. The pull is the attraction and the push is the repulsion. The push factors include: “war, conflict, natural disasters; natural or man-made environmental degradation; lack of employment opportunities, under-employment, poverty, extreme hardship; unequal access to employment and services (healthcare, education; gender constraints/threats at origin (including early marriage, female circumcision, homophobia); persecution as outlined in 1951 Refugee Convention; lack of political freedom and protection of human rights; and lack of good governance/rule of law (human rights corruption)”. The pull factors, continued (UNDP, 2010) also include perceived opportunities elsewhere (work, education); family re-unification (through marriage, parents/children); demand for high/low-skilled labour, and social networks. However, there are vulnerabilities associated with migration. People impelled to move are more vulnerable because away from their support networks they are more exposed to violence, stigma and exclusion; women, children and the elderly are often the most vulnerable and will face more dangers than men; also when migration is cross-border, migrants may face additional difficulties due to language and cultural differences; equally, irregular migrants are more vulnerable as their labour rights are not protected thereby increasing their risk of exploitation (Flahauz and De Haas, 2016).
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine Comparative analysis of daily sun and the guardian newspapers coverage of the Nigeria youths migrations. Sun and guardian newspapers in Ibadan form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain Comparative analysis of daily sun and the guardian newspapers coverage of the Nigeria youths migrations.. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing Comparative analysis of daily sun and the guardian newspapers coverage of the Nigeria youths migrations.
This study was on Comparative analysis of daily sun and the guardian newspapers coverage of the Nigeria youths migrations.. Three objectives were raised which included: To examine and compare the emphasis and tone employed by the Daily Sun and The Guardian in their coverage of Nigerian youth migration, To assess the extent to which the newspapers represent the challenges faced by migrating Nigerian youth and to explore how the Daily Sun and The Guardian present government responses and policies related to youth migration. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from sun and guardian newspaper in Ibadan. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
The comparative analysis has illuminated the multifaceted nature of media representations of Nigerian youth migration. Understanding the differences in coverage between the Daily Sun and The Guardian is crucial for media literacy, policy formulation, and fostering a more informed public discourse on migration issues. As the media continues to play a pivotal role in shaping societal narratives, this study underscores the importance of responsible journalism in portraying the complexities of youth migration in Nigeria. The findings also provide a foundation for future research to explore additional media outlets, employ quantitative methods, and track changes in coverage over time.
Media outlets, including the Daily Sun and The Guardian, should prioritize responsible journalism practices in their coverage of youth migration. This includes maintaining accuracy, fairness, and ethical considerations to provide a well-rounded and unbiased representation of the issue.
To enhance the comprehensiveness of coverage, media organizations should actively seek diverse sources and perspectives on youth migration. This includes incorporating the voices of migrants, experts, and community leaders to present a more holistic view of the challenges and opportunities associated with migration.
Journalists covering migration issues should undergo training to better understand the complexities of youth migration, including the socio-economic, political, and cultural dimensions. Sensitization programs can contribute to more informed and nuanced reporting.
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