Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Comparative Assessment of the Qualities and Sensory Properties of Garri Produced Locally and on Commercial Scale

Comparative Assessment of the Qualities and Sensory Properties of Garri Produced Locally and on Commercial Scale

Comparative Assessment of the Qualities and Sensory Properties of Garri Produced Locally and on a Commercial Scale

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

This present project work aims to investigate and compare the quality assessment and sensory properties of garri produce locally and on a commercial scale.



Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), also referred to as yucca in Spanish, mandioca in Portuguese and tapioca in French, belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family (Opara,1999; Burrell, 2003). It has been reported that the crop originated from South America and was domesticated between 5,000 and 7,000 years B.C. (Olsen and Schaal, 2001). The first import of cassava to Africa was by the Portuguese from Brazil in the 18th century, but now cassava is cultivated and consumed in many countries across Africa, Asia and South America (Nhassico et al., 2008; FAOSTAT, 2013). The crop has drought resistant root which offers low cost vegetative propagation with flexibility in harvesting time and seasons (Haggblade et al., 2012). Cassava can be cultivated throughout the year between latitude 30º N and 30º S, in different soil types except hydromorphic soil with excess water (Iyer et al., 2010). The stem grows to about 5 m long with each plant producing between 5 to 8 long tubers with firm, homogenous fibrous flesh covered with rough and brownish outer layer of about 1 mm thick. The root can be stored in the ground for over 2 years, and this serves as a means of food security to the farmer in West African countries such as Nigeria (Nhassico et al., 2008; Falade and Akingbala, 2010)

Cassava is a subsistence crop in Africa, and supplies about 200 – 500 calories per day (836.8 – 2092J) for households in the developing countries (Sánchez et al., 2006; Omodamiro et al., 2007). In the early years, cassava was neglected as food crops because of its low protein content (< 2%) and high cyanide content (120-1945 mg HCN equivalent/ kg) (Charles et al., 2005), but it is considered the fourth most energy rich food source due to the high (>70 %) carbohydrate content (Falade and Akingbala, 2010). The leaf of cassava plant is higher in protein (3 – 5%) and some macro nutrients, and therefore consumed as vegetable in some countries (Salcedo et al., 2010; Burns et al., 2012). However, the tuberous root is the major edible part of the crop. The root serves as a source of food security against famine because of its long storage ability in the ground prior to harvest (El-Sharkawy, 2004). The root can be processed into different food forms for human consumption, animal feed and as industrial raw material for paper, textiles and alcoholic drinks (Falade and Akingbala, 2010; Haggblade et al., 2012). In Thailand, cassava dry chips and pellets are the major export commodity (Falade and Akingbala, 2010), while in Nigeria, it is processed mainly into gari and fufu.

Utilization of cassava root in food is numerous, however, the potential in food and other industrial applications is limited by the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration, which reduces the shelf-life and degrades quality attributes (Sánchez et al., 2006). This physiological deterioration is attributed to its high moisture level (60 to 75%), and respiration rate which continues even after harvest (Salcedo et al., 2010), resulting in softening and decay of the root and thus rendering it unwholesome for human consumption. Other factors that can cause deterioration of cassava root include pests, disease, and mechanical damage such as cuts and bruises which occur during postharvest handling and processing (Falade and Akingbala, 2010; Iyer et al., 2010). The cut area exposes the root to vascular streaking and microbial attack, thereby accelerating deterioration and decay (Opara, 1999; Buschmann et al., 2000). Studies have shown that physiological changes start within 24 h after harvest with a blue black discoloration commonly appearing on the root after 72 h (Iyer et al., 2010; Zidenga et al., 2012). The colour change of the root is accompanied by fermentation and thereafter an offensive odour indicating complete rotting (Reilly et al., 2004). This rapid degradation of quality in fresh cassava roots is a major reason for the poor utilization, poor market quality, short root storage life and low processing yield (Reilly et al., 2004; Sánchez et al., 2006).

Converting cassava root to other food forms creates products with longer shelf-life, adds value to the root, and reduce postharvest loses (Falade and Akingbala, 2010). Furthermore, the application of novel postharvest handling, processing, packaging and storage techniques is of critical importance for successful large scale production and utilization of cassava roots and products. Successful application of these postharvest technologies will contribute towards maintaining product quality and safety as well as reducing incidence of postharvest losses, and thereby, improve food security (Opara, 2013).

Economic Importance of Cassava

Annual global production of cassava is estimated to be over 238,000 tonnes, with Africa contributing about 54 %, followed by Asia and South America. Cassava root produces excellent flour quality and therefore has been promoted as composite flour for use in the food industries (Shittu et al., 2008). Cassava flour is also highly recommended in the diet of celiac patients with strict adherence to gluten-free food products (Briani et al., 2008; Niewinski, 2008). Celiac disease is an autoimmune complex that affects the bowel after the ingestion of gluten containing grains or cereals such as wheat and rye (Briani et al., 2008).

In view of enhancing cassava productivity to promote economic development, the global mandate on cassava research was given to the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in Colombia while the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Nigeria obtained the regional mandate on cassava research (El-Sharkawy, 2007). However, due to widespread consumer preference for maize, cassava cultivation in South Africa is low compared to other African countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Angola, Tanzania, Uganda and Malawi. Cassava production in South Africa is limited to small scale farmers close to Mozambican border, with annual production between 8 and 15 t/ha (Mabasa, 2007) compared to 54,000 tonnes productions in Nigeria (FAO, 2013).

Cassava is one of the major tropical staple foods alongside yam, plantain, and sweet potato, and is considered as a good source of carbohydrate and the fourth most energy-giving diet. Some cultivars are produced for human consumption while some are for animal feed (Falade and Akingbala, 2010) however, studies have shown that cultivars such as TMS 94/0330, 91/02324, 92/0035, 001/0355, TME 1, UMUCASS 36, and 92/0057 are suitable for food as well as feed (Aryee et al., 2006; Eleazu et al., 2011). The starch obtained from the root of most cultivars is used for making traditional desserts, salad dressing, soup thickener, binding agent in sausages, high fructose syrup, and in textile industries (Montagnac et al., 2009). In countries such as Brazil, cassava is basically cultivated for local industrial purposes, while in Thailand it is an export commodity. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa it is grown mainly by subsistence farmers for consumption as staple food and as a source of income (Falade and Akingbala, 2010). Cassava is being explored as a potential bio-fuel crop in countries like China and Thailand (Zidenga et al., 2012). In Brazil, the bio-fuel from cassava is used by flex-fuel light vehicles while in the United States it is used as gasoline (Adelekan, 2010; Adelekan, 2012).




 Materials Source

Two commercially available brands of garri in Ikoko market were purchased. The garri samples were registered by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) at the time of this study. The trade and manufacturer’s names were obtained from the labels on the products and recorded. Also, two different types of garri (white and yellow) were locally produced garri purchased from different sellers bulked together and 1 kilogram was portion out from each type and neatly sealed in a plastic bag until need for analysis.




Table 4.1: Proximate Composition of Garri from Different Processors (Local and Commercial)





From the findings of the study, golden penny garri (Sample A) had the best outcomes in all proximate parameters, Golden penny garri also have the least moisture content indicating prolong shelf life, next to Golden penny garri was Americomm garri, its moisture content was also observed second to Golden penny garri. Emure ile garri has the highest ash content, the carbohydrate content of Golden penny, Americomm and Eyinogbe garri has no significant difference. All the garri samples are acidic, the TTA value was observed low in sample B, C and D but higher in A (golden penny garri), the HCN value was also very low in all samples but golden penny garri was observed to have the least content of HCN. Golden penny garri was generally accepted in terms of colour, aroma, taste and texture.


Based on the findings in this study, it is therefore recommended that further studies should be carried out on the microbial properties of local garri and industrial garri.


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