Comparative Study of the Proximate and Mineral Composition of Two Species of Shokoyokoto (Celosia Argentea)
The Objective of the Study
Therefore the aim and objectives of this study was to evaluate the proximate and mineral composition of red and green shokoyokoto (Celosia argentea).
Celosia argentea Linn
Celosia argentea L is an erect annual herb up to 2 metres tall. The stem is ridged, glabrous and branches up to 25 per plant (Hayakawa et al., 2008). The leaves are alternate, simple, without stipules; petiole indistinctly demarcated; blade ovate to lanceolate-oblong or narrowly linear, up to 15 centimetres x 7 centimetres, tapering at base, acute to obtuse and shortly mucronate at apex, entire, glabrous and pinnately veined (Hayakawa et al., 2008). Inflorescence a dense, many flowered spike at first conical but becoming cylindrical up to 20 centimetres long, braceate, slivery to pink in ornamental forms completely or partly sterile and in many colours (Hayakawa et al., 1998). Flowers are small, bisexual, regular five merous, tepal free, narrowly elliptical-oblong, 6-10 millimetres long, stamen fused at base, ovary superior, 1celled, style filiform up to 7 millimetres long, stigma 23,very short. Fruit is an ovoid to globose capsule 3-4 millimetres long circumscissile, few seeded with seeds being lenticular, 1- 1.5 millimetres long, black, shinning, shallowly reticulate( Hayakawa et al., 1998).
Celosia argentea L is scientifically classified to plantae kingdom. It is an angiosperm, eudicot and core eudicot. It belongs to the order Cryophyllales, of the family Amaranthaceae and sub family Amaranthoideae, genus Celosia and species C. argentea Linn. The full binomial name is Celosia argentea Linn (Wunderlin and Hasen, 2008; GRIN, 2014).
Cultivation of celosia argentea
- argentea in India mainly cultivated in Tirunelveli and also it is wildly grow as weed. Even though it is African origin, Celosia is known as a foodstuff in Indonesia and even in India. Furthermore, in the future it might become cultivated, especially in the hot and malnourished regions of the equatorial zone. It can be planted well in humid areas and it grows in the wet season. As C. argentea is a simple plant needs moderate soil moisture for its proper growth (LCA, 2006). C. argentea was cultivated for cut flower production in Israel, and the local environmental conditions in the Arad area are suitable for their growth (Haya et al., 2007).
Distribution and description of celosia argentea
- argentea plant is known worldwide, its use for food is geographically much more limited. The plant is common in West Africa, from Sierra Leone to Nigeria. It is also known in Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, other parts of East Africa, Mexico and Central Africa. C. argentea is an important cultivated vegetable in the rainforest zone of Nigeria, Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, and Togo. The wild form (sometimes referred to as C. trigyna) is a potherb throughout the savanna area of tropical Africa. C. argentea grows as a weed during rainy season throughout India and other tropical regions of the world mainly Sri Lanka, Yeman, Indonesia, America and West indies (LCA, 2006).
Celosia species have been designated as a quantitative short-day plant, alternate entire or rarely lobed leaves. C. argenta is an erect, coarse, simple, branched, smooth annual herb, normally about 0.5 to 1.5 m in height but sometimes much taller. It has few branches, at least until it approaches the time for flowering. The leaves are alternate entire or rarely lobed, light green. They are typically 2 X 6cm, although those on flowering shoots are slightly longer. Even the green foliage may contain large amounts of betalain pigments. The often brilliantly colored flowers are borne in dense heads. Most occur in spikes, and stand like spears in the garden bed. But certain cultivated forms have compact or feathery clusters due to fasciation. C. argentea flowers yield large numbers of seeds that are about 1 mm in diameter and are normally black in colour. The Cockscomb flower blooms from late summer through late fall. C. argentea plant is an annual dicotyledon (LCA, 2006; Jain, 2005; Ron et al., 1995).
Food and nutritional value of celosia argentea
Form the ancient days Celosia and its species are used as one of the major vegetables as parallel with as its therapeutic effect for various disorders. The plants from Celosia including C. argentea have nutritional value which is more-or-less comparable to that of other darkgreen leaves, higher content of minerals, provitamin A, good sources for vitamins A and C. The leaves are containing considerable protein and calcium as well as phosphorus and iron. A survey reported that, the plant rich with nutritional value and it has been listed in the following constituents water 84 g, calories 44, protein 4.7 g, fat 0.7 g, carbohydrate 8 g, fiber 1.8 g, calcium 0.26mg, phosphorus 0.43g, and iron 0.078g (measured per 100 g edible leaf portion) (Florian and Reinhold, 2004).
Betalains from Celosia plants used in traditional Chinese medicine like Celosia sp. were tested for their feasibility to colour food, but yet are used only locally (Florian and Reinhold, 2004). C. argentea is annual leaf vegetable; it grows widespread as a native or naturalized wildflower, and is cultivated as a nutritious leafy green vegetable. It is traditional fare in the countries of Central and West Africa, and is one of the leading leafy green vegetables in Nigeria, where it is known as ‘sokoyokoto’, meaning “make husbands fat and happy”. These leaves, young stems and young inflorescences are used for stew, as they soften up readily in cooking. The leaves also have a soft texture and mild spinach like taste. They are also pepped up with such things as hot pepper, garlic, fresh lime, and red palm oil and eaten as a side dish. In Nigeria, Benin, and Congo, to name just three countries, the fresh young leaves are a common item of diet. They are primarily eaten in a dish and soup prepared from various other vegetable greens. To such dishes celosia leaves certainly contribute their share of nutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamins, as well as little protein (LCA, 2006).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collections of Materials
Red and green Shokoyokoto (Celosia argentea) was obtained from Oja Oba market, Owo, Ondo State. The vegetable was processed in food processing laboratory in the department of food science and technology Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.
Preparation of Sample
The vegetables (Celosia argentea) were sorted to remove extraneous materials, and then it was washed by rinsing in water, which was later subjected to further analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1: Proximate composition of Red and Green Shokoyokoto (Celosia argentea) (%)
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The data obtained from this study showed that these vegetables (Red and Green Celosia argentea) contain appreciable amount of proteins, fat, fibre, carbohydrate, and sufficient amount of mineral elements needed for normal body functioning, maintenance of the body, and reproduction. It can therefore, be concluded that these vegetables can contribute significantly to the nutrients of man and animals and should be used as source of nutrients to supplement other major sources of nutrients.
Based on the results of this study it is therefore recommended that farmers should be encouraged to cultivate more of this vegetables, and people should be enlighten about the nutritional composition of this vegetable.
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