Human Resource Management Project Topics

Compensation as a Strategy for Retention of Employees in Firms. A Study of Benue State Civil Service Commission

Compensation as a Strategy for Retention of Employees in Firms. A Study of Benue State Civil Service Commission

Compensation as a Strategy for Retention of Employees in Firms. A Study of Benue State Civil Service Commission


Objectives of the Study

The following are the specific objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the current compensation practices in the Benue State Civil Service Commission and analyze their effectiveness in retaining employees.
  2. To identify the factors influencing employee turnover and low morale in the Benue State Civil Service Commission and assess how compensation plays a role in addressing these issues.
  3. To provide evidence-based recommendations for enhancing compensation strategies within the Benue State Civil Service Commission to improve employee retention and job satisfaction.



Conceptual Review

Employee Retention

Employee retention is a critical aspect of human resource management and organizational effectiveness in public sector institutions like the Benue State Civil Service Commission. It refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees over an extended period, ensuring continuity and stability within the workforce (Gberevbie, 2018).

Effective employee retention is paramount for public sector institutions. A high level of employee turnover can be costly and disruptive to the normal functioning of government agencies. In the context of the Benue State Civil Service Commission, which plays a vital role in governance and public service delivery (ADB/OECD, 2020), maintaining a stable and experienced workforce is crucial for the continuity and effective execution of government policies and programs.

Monetary rewards are a fundamental aspect of employee retention. Competitive salaries and benefits, as highlighted by McOliver (2021), are essential for attracting and retaining top talent. Employees need to feel that their compensation is commensurate with their skills and experience. If they perceive that they can earn more in the private sector, there is a higher likelihood of attrition (Gberevbie & Arowosegbe, 2020). This is in line with the principle that fair and equitable compensation is a key driver of employee satisfaction and retention (Gomez-Mejia & Balkin, 2020).

Non-monetary rewards also play a pivotal role in employee retention, as discussed by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD, 2022). In the Benue State Civil Service Commission, offering opportunities for career development, flexible work arrangements, and recognition programs can significantly impact employees’ decision to stay committed to the organization. Civil servants who perceive a promising future in their current roles are more likely to remain dedicated to their positions, contributing to the stability of the workforce and the quality of public service delivery (Gberevbie, 2018).

Pay equity and fairness are equally crucial for employee retention. Injustice in compensation practices can lead to dissatisfaction and ultimately result in higher turnover rates (Gomez-Mejia & Balkin, 2020). Civil servants need to perceive that their compensation is fair in comparison to their peers and line with their contributions. In the context of the Benue State Civil Service Commission, ensuring pay equity is essential for maintaining a satisfied and committed workforce (Neal & Hesketh, 2021).




Research Design

The research design chosen for this study is a quantitative survey research design, which aligns with the research objectives (Saunders et al., 2019). This approach is particularly suited to the study’s focus on compensation and employee retention within the Benue State Civil Service Commission. A quantitative survey design allows for the systematic collection of data from a large and diverse group of respondents, offering a structured and standardized approach to data collection and analysis.

The quantitative survey research design is well-suited for this study due to its capacity to gather data from a substantial number of respondents (Saunders et al., 2019). In the context of the Benue State Civil Service Commission, where a significant workforce is employed, this design enables the inclusion of a representative sample of employees. By systematically collecting data from a large and diverse group, the study can gain a comprehensive understanding of compensation practices and their impact on employee retention within the organization.

Furthermore, the survey design offers a structured and standardized approach to data collection. This structure ensures that each respondent is presented with the same set of questions and response options, promoting consistency and comparability in the data collected (Saunders et al., 2019). The structured format of the survey reduces the risk of bias and ensures that all respondents are exposed to the same research stimuli, enhancing the reliability and validity of the findings.

One of the significant advantages of a quantitative survey research design is its capacity for statistical analysis. This design is well-suited for hypothesis testing, allowing the study to empirically assess the relationships between compensation practices and employee retention (Saunders et al., 2019). Through statistical analysis, the study can draw valid and evidence-based conclusions, supporting or refuting the research hypotheses. This analytical rigour provides a robust foundation for the study’s findings and contributes to the generation of actionable insights for the Benue State Civil Service Commission.

In summary, the chosen research design of a quantitative survey aligns with the study’s objectives and the context of the Benue State Civil Service Commission. This design allows for the systematic collection of data from a diverse group of employees, ensuring comprehensive insights into compensation and retention practices. Its structured and standardized approach enhances the reliability and validity of the data, while statistical analysis supports hypothesis testing and the drawing of valid conclusions, ultimately contributing to a rigorous and evidence-based study.



Data Presentation



Summary of Findings

The study investigated the relationship between compensation strategies and employee retention within the Benue State Civil Service Commission, providing insights into the factors affecting job satisfaction and commitment among civil servants. The findings of the study shed light on various dimensions of compensation and their impact on employee retention. This general summary of findings will provide an overview of the key results and their implications.

The research examined the effect of compensation strategies, including monetary and non-monetary rewards, on employee retention. The majority of respondents (67.3%) agreed that the Commission’s compensation packages were attractive and competitive. This indicates that employees perceive the current compensation practices positively, which can contribute to their decision to remain in their positions. However, some respondents (19.2%) were uncertain about the attractiveness of the compensation packages, suggesting room for improvement. The positive perception of compensation strategies aligns with the expectancy theory, which posits that employees are more likely to stay when they believe their efforts will lead to rewards.

Employees’ perceptions of fairness in compensation were explored, revealing that 73.1% of respondents agreed that their compensation and benefits were fair given their level of performance. The fairness perception is crucial, as employees who perceive inequity might be more likely to leave the organization. This aligns with equity theory, which suggests that individuals compare their input-to-outcome ratios to others. In this context, employees compare their efforts and performance to the rewards they receive, influencing their satisfaction and commitment.

The study also assessed whether the Commission’s compensation practices positively influenced employees’ decisions to remain in their current positions. Results showed that 68.3% of respondents agreed with this statement. This indicates that employees recognize the importance of compensation practices in their commitment to the Commission. The influence of compensation aligns with the human capital theory, which emphasizes investment in employees’ skills and knowledge as a means of retaining valuable talent. A well-structured compensation package can enhance employees’ perceived value, thereby increasing retention.

Respondents’ satisfaction with the Commission’s compensation policies and practices was explored. The majority (77.9%) agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, indicating a high level of satisfaction. A high degree of satisfaction is beneficial for employee retention, as satisfied employees are less likely to seek alternative employment. This result reflects the Commission’s commitment to creating compensation policies that align with employee expectations and needs.

In terms of salary competitiveness, 67.3% of respondents believed that their salaries were competitive compared to similar positions in other organizations. This perception is significant, as it impacts employees’ motivation to stay with the Commission. The Commission’s compensation practices appear to be competitive, which is essential for attracting and retaining talent. This result is consistent with the idea that employees are more likely to remain in an organization when they believe their compensation is competitive.

The study also focused on non-monetary benefits, such as training and development opportunities, flexible working hours, and telecommuting options. Results showed that a vast majority (84.6%) agreed that these non-monetary benefits positively influenced their decision to remain in their current positions. The provision of such benefits significantly contributes to job satisfaction and employee retention. These results emphasize the importance of considering non-monetary rewards alongside traditional compensation in an overall retention strategy.

Work-life balance initiatives, such as flexible working hours and telecommuting options, were perceived positively by employees. The majority of respondents (77.9%) agreed with this statement, indicating that these initiatives significantly impact job satisfaction and employee retention. This result aligns with contemporary workplace trends, highlighting the significance of addressing work-life balance concerns to attract and retain talent.

The study revealed that 80.1% of respondents believed that the recognition and appreciation they received for their contributions enhanced their commitment to the Commission. Recognition is a powerful motivator that boosts morale and encourages employees to stay. The results highlight the importance of recognizing and appreciating employees for their efforts to enhance their commitment.

Respondents recognized the significance of non-monetary rewards in their overall job satisfaction and retention. A substantial majority (81.7%) considered that non-monetary rewards, such as recognition, professional development, or work-life balance initiatives, significantly contributed to their job satisfaction. This finding underscores the importance of a holistic approach to employee compensation and benefits, considering both monetary and non-monetary aspects to improve employee retention.

In summary, the findings of this study underscore the vital role of compensation strategies, perceived fairness, and non-monetary benefits in shaping employee retention within the Benue State Civil Service Commission. Employees’ perceptions of fairness and satisfaction with compensation policies are crucial factors in enhancing job satisfaction and commitment. Additionally, the influence of non-monetary rewards, work-life balance initiatives, and recognition and appreciation further contribute to employee retention. These findings provide valuable insights for the Commission and policymakers in designing effective compensation strategies to retain a skilled and motivated workforce. A well-balanced approach that addresses both monetary and non-monetary aspects of compensation is essential for improving employee retention and public service quality.

Implication of the Study

The implications of this study extend to both the academic and practical aspects of the field, particularly in the context of public administration, human resource management, and organizational behavior. The practical implications of the study are as follows:

Enhanced Compensation Strategies: The findings underscore the significance of reviewing and enhancing compensation strategies within public sector organizations like the Benue State Civil Service Commission. The study recommends that the Commission consider regular adjustments to monetary rewards and the introduction of performance-linked bonuses to remain competitive in attracting and retaining top talent. These practical implications can contribute to a more satisfied and committed workforce.

Employee Retention: The study’s results emphasize the role of compensation, both monetary and non-monetary, in influencing employee retention. By recognizing this connection, organizations, including government agencies, can prioritize the development of comprehensive compensation packages, recognition programs, and career development opportunities to increase retention rates. Understanding these implications is crucial for maintaining experienced and skilled civil servants, which ultimately benefits public service delivery.

Effective Governance: Improved compensation strategies can positively impact good governance. When employees are content with their compensation and remain committed to their roles, it contributes to better service delivery. Consequently, public sector organizations can enhance the quality of governance and responsiveness to the needs of citizens. The study’s implications can guide policymakers and administrators in prioritizing investments in human capital and compensation practices.

Talent Attraction: Public sector organizations can utilize the study’s implications to attract new talent. By positioning themselves as employers with competitive compensation packages and a commitment to employee development, they can draw in fresh, high-quality professionals who can contribute to organizational success and the delivery of public services.

Research and Policy Development: The study’s findings serve as a foundation for further research in the field of human resource management and public administration. Policymakers and researchers can utilize these implications to develop more comprehensive policies and strategies aimed at improving compensation practices and overall employee well-being in public sector organizations.


The results of the hypotheses tested in this study provide valuable insights into the relationship between compensation strategies and employee retention within the Benue State Civil Service Commission. The findings reveal several key implications and conclusions:

First, the study demonstrates that employees perceive the Commission’s compensation packages as attractive and competitive. This positive perception aligns with expectancy theory, as employees are more likely to stay when they believe their efforts will lead to rewarding outcomes.

Second, the majority of respondents view their compensation and benefits as fair, indicating a strong alignment with equity theory. When employees perceive fairness in compensation, they are more likely to remain committed to the organization.

Third, the research shows that the Commission’s compensation practices play a significant role in employees’ decisions to remain in their current positions, which supports the principles of the human capital theory. Investments in employees through competitive compensation practices enhance their perceived value and encourage retention.

Fourth, the high level of satisfaction with the Commission’s compensation policies and practices is indicative of a well-designed compensation framework that meets employee expectations and needs, which is essential for employee retention.

Fifth, employees believe that their salaries are competitive compared to similar positions in other organizations, reinforcing the Commission’s ability to attract and retain talent through competitive compensation.

Lastly, non-monetary benefits, work-life balance initiatives, and recognition and appreciation significantly influence job satisfaction and employee retention, emphasizing the importance of a comprehensive approach to compensation.

In conclusion, the study’s results highlight the critical role of compensation strategies in employee retention within the Benue State Civil Service Commission. These findings offer valuable guidance for the Commission and policymakers in shaping effective compensation strategies and retaining a motivated and committed workforce, ultimately enhancing the delivery of public services in Benue State.


Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are made to enhance compensation strategies and improve employee retention within the Benue State Civil Service Commission:

  1. Regular Compensation Reviews: The Commission should periodically review and update its compensation packages to ensure they remain competitive within the public sector job market. Regular reviews will help attract and retain top talent.
  2. Performance-Linked Bonuses: Implement performance-linked bonus schemes that reward employees for exceptional job performance. This can boost motivation and job satisfaction, directly impacting employee retention.
  3. Career Development Opportunities: The Commission should continue to invest in training and development programs to enhance employees’ skills and career prospects. Providing a clear path for career advancement can improve retention.
  4. Flexible Work Arrangements: Offer flexible work arrangements, such as telecommuting or flexible hours, to promote a better work-life balance and increase job satisfaction.
  5. Recognition Programs: Develop and maintain recognition programs to acknowledge and appreciate employees’ contributions. Recognized employees are more likely to stay committed to their roles.
  6. Benchmarking with Industry Standards: Regularly benchmark the Commission’s compensation practices against industry standards and competitors to ensure that salaries and benefits remain competitive.
  7. Transparent Communication: Maintain clear and transparent communication with employees regarding compensation policies, ensuring they understand how their performance and dedication affect their compensation.
  8. Employee Involvement: Involve employees in the design and evaluation of compensation policies and practices, enabling them to provide valuable input and feedback.
  9. Employee Associations and Unions Collaboration: Collaborate with employee associations and unions to align compensation practices with the expectations and needs of the workforce. This partnership can help ensure fair and competitive compensation.
  10. Regular Employee Surveys: Conduct regular employee satisfaction surveys to monitor the effectiveness of compensation strategies. Act on feedback to make continuous improvements and align compensation practices with employees’ changing expectatio

Suggestions for Further Study

The following suggestions for further studies were proposed:

Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis: Future studies could explore the influence of compensation practices on employee retention in public sector organizations across various cultural and national contexts. This comparative analysis would provide insights into the cultural factors that affect the relationship between compensation and retention.

Longitudinal Studies: Conducting longitudinal research to track changes in compensation strategies and their impact on employee retention over an extended period could yield valuable insights. Such studies would offer a deeper understanding of the long-term effectiveness of compensation practices.

Qualitative Investigations: While this study adopted a quantitative survey approach, future research could employ qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews or focus group discussions, to gain a more profound understanding of the perceptions and experiences of public sector employees regarding compensation and its influence on retention.

Sector-Specific Analyses: Focusing on specific sectors within the public service, such as education, healthcare, or law enforcement, can provide a more nuanced perspective on how compensation affects retention. Different sectors may have unique dynamics that warrant specialized research.

Employee Segmentation: Investigating the impact of compensation practices on different employee groups, such as junior vs. senior staff or administrative vs. technical roles, can help organizations tailor their strategies to specific workforce segments.

Comparative Analysis with the Private Sector: Research comparing the effectiveness of compensation practices between public and private sector organizations could offer insights into the unique challenges and advantages faced by public sector entities.

Impact of Non-Monetary Rewards: Future studies may delve deeper into the influence of non-monetary rewards, such as career development opportunities and work-life balance initiatives, on employee retention and overall job satisfaction within the public sector.

Government Policies and Legislation: Exploring the role of government policies and legislation in shaping compensation practices and their influence on retention is a crucial avenue for future research. Analyzing the impact of regulatory changes on compensation could provide valuable insights.

Employee Turnover Causes: Investigating the underlying causes of employee turnover and low morale in public sector organizations, beyond compensation, and how these factors interact with compensation strategies could provide a more comprehensive understanding of retention challenges.

International Organizations: Research on compensation and retention in international public sector organizations, such as United Nations agencies or regional governmental bodies, could offer insights into the global dimensions of this issue


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