Marketing Project Topics

Consumer Sentiment and Attitude Towards Advertising in Idah

Consumer Sentiment and Attitude Towards Advertising in Idah

Consumer Sentiment and Attitude Towards Advertising in Idah


Objectives of the Study

General Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to investigate customer’s sentiment and attitude towards  advertising in Idah.

Specific Objectives of the Study

The specific objective of the study is:

  • To investigate the relationship between personal belief dimensions (“product information”, “hedonic /pleasure” and falsity) and specific attitude towards Union Bank TV, radio, print media advertising.
  • To test the correlation between macro belief dimensions (“Good for Economy”, “materialism” and “Social Image”) with the general attitude towards Union Bank
  • To explore customers major source of information for learning about Union Banks product and services.
  • To evaluate customer perception of Union Bank advertising



Theoretical Review

The Concept of Attitude

An attitude in marketing terms is defined as a general evaluation of a product or service formed over time (Solomon, 2008).

Fishbein (1967) defines attitude as “a learned predisposition of human beings”. As part of a learned predisposition human behavior, Kotler (2000) further elaborates attitude as an individual personal evaluation, emotional feeling attached and action tendency toward some objects or ideas.

Attitudes are important to marketers because they theoretically summarize a consumer’s evaluation of an object (or brand or company) and represent positive or negative feelings and behavioral tendencies. Marketers’ keen interest in attitudes is based on the assumption that they are related to consumers’ purchase behavior. Considerable evidence supports the basic assumption of a relationship between attitudes and behavior. The attitude-behavior link does not always hold; many other factors can affect behavior. But attitudes are very important to marketers. Advertising and promotion are used to create favorable attitudes toward new products/services or brands, reinforce existing favorable attitudes, and/or change negative attitudes (Belch and Belch, 2003).

An attitude provides a series of cues to marketers. They predict future purchases, redesign marketing effort and make attitude more favorable. Attitudes indicate knowledge, feelings and intended action for the given stimulus (Khan, 2006). The goal of advertiser may be to create a positive attitude towards its product or brand and/or reinforce or change existing attitudes through marketing communications.

Most researchers agree that an attitude has three components; these are affect, behavior and cognition. Affect refers to the way a consumer feels about an attitude object. Behavior involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object. Cognition refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. These three components of an attitude can be remembered as the Union BankC model of attitudes. This model emphasizes the interrelationships between knowing, feeling and doing (Solomon et al., 2006).




Research Design and Approach

Quantitative research is a study that makes use of statistical analysis to obtain findings. Its key features include systematic and formal measurement of phenomena and the use of statistics (Geoffrey, 2005). Since this research uses systematic collection and measurement of data as well as application of statistical tools to obtain the findings, it is a quantitative research.

Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. Studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual, group or situation are all examples of descriptive research studies. Based on the above facts, the research followed the descriptive research design.

Sampling Design

Target Population

The target population for this study is customers of Union Bank PLC residing in Idah LGA. They can be referred as customers of city branches of Union Bank. From all the branches of Union Bank four were used for the study and the total population from the four branches are 33,877. Source: (Document of Association of Union Bank, 2016)

Sampling Technique

To take samples from the city branches of Union Bank a non-probability sampling was used. However, in order to achieve the balance in the selection of the branches, clustering method was used and they are clustered in to four grade levels. So the researcher was selected one branch from  Idah area of Kogi state, and therefore totally four branches of Union Bank are selected for this research.

Sample Size

There is no single rule that can be used to determine sample size. According to Kumar (2006), descriptive research typically uses larger samples; it is sometimes suggested that one should select 10-20 percent of the accessible population for the sample. Sampling is one of the methods, which allow the researcher to study relatively small number of units representing the whole population.

The study selected sample Using of simple random sampling method and totally four branches of Union Bank were selected from Idah .To obtain representative samples, in selecting the research respondents, convenience sampling technique was applied.



Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive statistics were used for demographic factors are gender, age, education, occupation, income per month, and advertisement of Union Bank.

Demographic Characteristics

The below listed Table 5 shows the general characteristics of respondents which include Gender, Age, Educational level, Occupation, Monthly income and sources of media.

As indicated in Table 5 above, the proportion of female and male respondents in this survey is 34.9% female and. 65.1 % male. Respondents within the age bracket of 18 years and below were

2.0 %, while those within the age range of 26 to 39 with a high rate of response of 40.3 %, followed by age range of 18 to 25 at 28.1 %, and 40 to 45 at 22.5 % and above 46 are the last 7.1%. It is obvious that the younger aged ones had a higher and were more willing to participate for advertising.




  • As per the information gathered from 395 respondents 170 (43 %) replied that the source of information for Union Bank promotion is TV advertisement.
  • The result of the study shows that 207 (53%) of respondents are agreed with Union Bank advertisement
  • The study also shows 103(27%) of the respondents disagree and strongly disagree with Union Bank advertisement quality.
  • The study further shows 85 (22%) of the respondents were neutral with Union Bank advertisement
  • Advertising quality attributes perceived by customers does have significant influences on customer attitude, supporting the research model, which shows advertising quality as an antecedent of customer
  • Performance ratings on Materialism have been the highest score of mean 3.03.
  • Performance rating on average has been low in Social image Average with the lowest mean score of 2.157.
  • The result demonstrates the personal belief dimensions “product information, falsity and hedonic/pleasure” positively correlate with specific media (TV, RADIO and PRINT) advertising of Union Bank.
  • The macro belief dimensions “good for economy, Materialism and social image” positively correlate with general attitude of Union Bank
  • The overall multiple regression relationship is significant with F ratio = 51.826 and α =.000 significant level
  • The Over all, advertisement quality of Union Bank is good had the mean of above 4.


The main aims of this study were to examine the customers’ attitude on advertising, perceived value, and to examine which evaluative dimensions of advertising have the strongest impact on customers’ attitudes. Accordingly, six evaluative dimensions of advertising were introduced: Product information, Hedonic/ pleasure, Falsity, Good for economy, Materialism and Social image.

Union Bank customers perceived Materialism (with the better mean scores, i.e. M = 3.03, SD = 1.24388) to be the most dominant attitude dimension and evident to a considerable extent, followed by Falsity (M =2.8119, SD = 1.2558), the second dominant factor, Good for economy (M = 2.7806, SD = 1.071) the third, Hedonic/ pleasure (M = 2.6869, SD = 1.1758) the fourth and Product information ( M = 2.3865, SD = 1.2502) rated as moderate practices of the advertising quality. Social image (M = 2.1570, SD = 1.0828) with the lowest mean score was perceived on the overall as least dimension of Union Bank advertising quality.

The result demonstrates the personal belief dimensions “product information, falsity and hedonic/pleasure” positively correlate with specific media (TV, RADIO and PRINT) advertising of Union Bank. The macro belief dimensions “good for economy, Materialism and social image” positively correlate with general attitude of Union Bank advertisings. The Over all, advertisement quality of Union Bank is good.


With the recent establishment of several new private banks and the expected entrance of foreign banks in Nigeria, the banking industry in the country is undergoing dynamic expansion and competition. To win this tough competition companies as well as banks need effective marketing communication plan? Customers required different advertisement attribute when they see or hear advertising of this particular attributes of advertising is clear and concise information about the product/ services further this customer need to entertain, amuse and memorize the advertising.

As presented in the findings of the study all six customer attitudinal dimensions have significant and positive impact on customer’s attitude. So working to improve these basic customer attitude dimensions will contribute to the overall advertisement quality.

Based on this fact and the findings of this study the following recommendations are proposed by the researcher.

  • As most of the respondents believe that TV and Print ads of the bank has been found lacking hedonic content. Union Bank take into account factors such as: advertising text, pictures, hedonic content and new advertising techniques to create a vivid picture in the mind of its customers and make its message
  • Union Bank can make the best use of it advertising campaign to attract and increase the number of customers, especially through TV which is the main information source of the customers, which has the most significant effect of customers’
  • Advertising involves making decisions on the five -“mission, message, media, money, and measurement” therefore by considering this five basic decisions Union bank form its advertisings campaign effectively and create a good advertising attitude on the minds of customers
  • Trustworthiness of information on message content is mandatory so Union bank should prepare its advertising message believable and containing the actual facts
  • Generally Marketers of the bank should ensure that adv. messages of the bank are designed and executed to take advantage of the unique advantages rendered by each


Limitation of Study

This study limited on customers of Union Bank PLC who are found in Addis Ababa city and furthermore limited only on a small sample of Union Bank customers. The research framework, only focus on the relationship of personal belief dimension (product information, hedonic/pleasure and falsity) and specific attitude towards Union Bank TV, radio and print adv. and macro belief dimensions (Good for economy, materialism and social image) and the general attitude towards Union Bank adv. Other elements or underpinnings measurements of customer attitudes are beyond this study.

Direction for Future Research

Further study can be undertaken with a larger sample size and larger geography coverage involving customers of outlying branches of the bank. Additionally, this study was correlational in nature and causal inferences could not be assessed. Other promotional Medias such as internet advertising, sales promotions and so on are not comprised on the study Therefore, future research may be undertaken in this regard.


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