Design and Implementation of a Computerized Drug Information Management System, Drug Procurement and Distribution Tracking System
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research project is to design and implement a computerized drug information management system, drug procurement and distribution tracking system. This includes:
- To order for drugs without mistake of procuring more than required.
- To take good stock of drugs.
- To prevent dispensary of expired drugs
- To ensure accurate keeping of records of drugs
The presence and role of computers in our society cannot be over emphasized. The positive impact of computing in the area of health care services has brought significant help to the society. According to (Silverman, 1990), drug availability, distribution and control are the major concern in health development as drugs constitute an important aspect of health development technology.
Chandrasekaran and Sam Jay (1983:201) described an approach to the design of medical decision making system based on nation of conceptual structures for knowledge representation. They pointed out that within in a decade since the beginning of the modern electronic computer age, many attempt to use the power of computer in the difficult task of medical decision making.
COMPUTERIZATION IN DRUG MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The word computerization simply means converting a manual process of an activity to a mechanical or electronic process in such a way that data processing is no longer done manually. Several works or studies have shown that applying computer technology to health centers reduces cost of medication, improves storage of drugs and can also avoids duplication of records (redundancy). It provides unique identification of clinical data, security and speed.
Experts say that drugs systems can also provides physicians with specific details including the use of dosage, potential reactions to drug and details of drug cost. In a large hospital like UNTH, computerization could improve day to day work. Complex management would be made easier. Computerization could be effectively applied in drug inventory, drug procurement and drug management to ease the manual method of recording data and ensure adequate prescriptions of drugs to each ward respectively.
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF DRUG MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM.
A decade prior to the introduction of National Health Service Trust, the management of hospital drug involved hospital drug and therapeutic committee, then referred to a pharmacy system. This committee set up a research on management of drugs, as part of large evaluative study on the management of drugs. The committee aimed to describe the system that currently existed for managing drugs in a hospital. A non general hospital was used as a case study in 1997. They centered their study at different administrative levels. Greater or lesser emphasis was placed on the chemical directorate and this appeared to demonstrate some difference in pharmacy and medical roles in drug management.
This system will provide a drug inventory control system, which aids in decision on what drug to be ordered. Drugs to order were classified according to their therapeutic value. This system was adopted in Philippine hospital. Problems related to limited financial resources, shortage of drugs and supplies in government hospital like UNTH. Varied prices of drugs purchased by health, non health sectors and non compliance to Philippines national drug formulary (PNDF) prompted the provincial pooled procurement program (PPPP) in 1998. The peoples were to ensure quality drugs were procured systematically at lower costs.
Drug prescription or administration errors are most common cause of adverse effect on patients but drug management information system can be effective in reducing these errors, (Essien E. Daniel B.Sc. project work on Pharmacy).
Procurement of drugs should be done in a timely manner and in reasonable quantity in order to minimize interruption in supply while at the same time avoid overstocking. All procurement activities should be performed by qualified staff while special drugs should only be received and handled by staff with relevant training. In Hong Kong, during the drug receipt process, essential information such as brand name and chemical name, potency, dosage form, Hong Kong registration
number, etc. of the drug should be checked against the purchase order. The expiry date, pack size, product appearance and storage condition of drug should also be audited. Should there be any non-conformity in product appearance, pack size, volume etc., such drugs will not be procured (Essien E. Daniel, 1997 automated drug inventory control system BSc project work Futo pp14.
Drug distribution is one of the key processes in hospitals. The process involves the continuum of prescribing, reviewing, preparing, dispensing and administering drugs. The physician prescribes a drug in a certain dosage in the name of the patient to support his treatment; the pharmacist checks the information and sends a definitive medication order in the patient’s name to the nursing unit. A nurse will administer the drug to the patient on the basis of this definitive order and register that she has done so. The pharmaceutical industry renders the drug identifiable by labeling the drug package with the drug name, strength, and batch and expiry date. The material flow is initiated by the medication order. Drugs are purchased from the pharmaceutical industry or wholesaler, transported to the pharmacy, where they are stored and then delivered to the ward or patient. The drug may be dispensed in either the central pharmacy or the nursing unit. When the drug is administered, the patient and drug information is coupled and registered as a trend in drug distribution (Colen ,2008) Phd,PharmD EP Journal Vol., 12.
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Software Engineering Methodology (SWEM) is the body of methods, rules, postulates, procedures and processes that are used to manage a software engineering project (Osuagwu, 2009). He classified software engineering into the following categories;
- The pragmatic system analysis and designmethodology(SSADM)
- Object oriented analysis and design mythology(OOADM)
- Prototype Methodology
- Expert System
STRUCTURED SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY (SSADM)
This project work is developed with this methodology (SSADM). The pragmatic system analysis and design methodology consist of investigation of the present system, definition of the new system, establishment of constraints and system analysis documentation which should provide the following.
- Cost/ Benefit/Schedule report for each suitable system
- Database requirement
- Physical requirement of hardware and personnel
- Conversion requirement
This methodology (SSADM) involves: developments such as system flow chart, Job steps, Program narratives which enhances organization for computer execution
- Prototype Methodology
- Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology
- Pragmatic System Analysis and Design Methodology
IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
CHOICE OF DEVELOPMENTTOOLS
To ensure a standardized object oriented program in its entire ramification, I used visual basic 6.0, after which I used Microsoft office Access to call up my database which is a pseudo relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft jet Database Engine with Graphical interface and software development tools. I used it because of its interoperability with visual Basic (my front end) which is also an event driven programming application.
Using Microsoft Access one can
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
These systems underpin all the activities of drug procurement and distribution tracking system, by providing good health care and safety. It also provides fast access to drug information and the current status of drug can be obtained from the database files unlike the manual system.
This can be applied by using computer to determine the effectiveness of drug stock control; it helps in making quick decision by members of the organization.
Further enhancement should be made on drug procurement, and distribution tracking system of hospitals such as medical records, billing and general hospital.
- This work is design strictly for the use in UNTH. If any other hospital is to use it, it has to be
- The hospital (UNTH) has to train their staff on the use of computer
- Some modification can be made in order to improve more on the
This work is recommended to improve in the way drug should be search. It should have a drop down menu that have lists of drugs in order to make work easy and also in the expiring date, it should have a sign to show that a drug have expired.
BEME (BILL OF ENGINEERING MEARSUREMENT AND EVALUTION).
The benefit of using drug procurement and distribution tracking system cannot be over emphasized. This is because the system will increase the speed and accuracy of procurement, distribution and tracking of drug in pharmacy department of any hospital especially that of UNTH. It will also eliminate the case of misplacing files of patient and reduce the pilling up of papers in the office.
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