Design and Implementation of a Management Information System for Political Parties
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to design and implement a management information system for Nigerian Political Parties. The specific objectives include:
- Registration of all existing political party under INEC
- Provide a friendly interface for accessing information in confidence and make certain proper identification technique of each party.
- Provide a secure login authentication for administrative users
- Create a centralized database as to reduce paper work.
An Overview of Information Management System
The information needs of modern organizations have become quite enormous and challenging to the extent that every organization needs to pay great attention to how information is gathered, stored, disseminated and utilized. This situation has arisen because of factors such as increased organizational size, expanded operational scope, competitive influence and overall environmental vagaries. Today’s organizations require tools to support quicker and automated decisions, as well as ways to minimize uncertainly; only an effective management information system can ameliorate this challenge.
The term management information systems, popularly abbreviated as MIS according to Lucey (2005) has become synonymous with computer; yet, both concepts are not exactly the same because management information systems existed in the life of pre-modern organizations long before the advent of the computer technology. This argument is substantiated by the fact that computer was not in use when organizations kept records using traditional and manual mechanisms to manage information. It is important though to pinpoint that the computer takes credit for increased interest in management information systems because it eases and facilitates data processing as well as adds new vistas of interesting career options in MIS (Ottih, 1995).
With faster access to needed information through MIS, managers are able to make effective and timely decisions regarding investments, employment, new products and many more as it concerns their organizations. By decision – making, we refer to the process of choosing certain lines of action from among numerous alternatives. Decisions is basically an integral chunk of management and it occurs in every level (e.g., top management, middle management and lower management) and in every function (e.g., marketing, accounting, human resources, and production) (Lucey, 2005).
The effectiveness or otherwise of any organization is dependent on the quality of decisions that informs its operation. If decisions are right, it translates in positive organizational outcomes, but where organizational activities are executed in conditions of poor decisions resulting from insufficient or inaccurate information, such organization could be doomed. This is why decision making is a major determinant of organization’s success or failure.
Taking into cognizance the level of risk involved in making decision under high uncertainty, and the scholarly convergence that effective management information systems ensures good decisions (Gorelick et al. 2003) respectively, one would think that any organization that hungers for effectiveness, efficiency would seek to make relevant decisions at every point of its operations; and making good decision we think is a product of effective management information systems.
Definitions of Information Management
Wigand et al (1997), Information management (IM) is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or a right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information.
A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are distinct from other information systems because they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities.
Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems
Information Management is the handling of information acquired by one or many disparate sources in a way that optimizes access by all who have a share in that information or a right to that information.
Information management system a term sometimes used synonymously with database management system (DBMS) although normally used in a more general sense. The term has no widely accepted definition and thus can be applied to any system of software that facilitates the storage, organization, and retrieval of information within a computer system, without the implication that it need have all the essential characteristics of a DBMS. The information held may include sound fragments, images, and video sequences in addition to the usual textual and numerical information. These newer forms of computer-held information are sometimes argued as being a defining characteristic of the term, notwithstanding that DBMS are developing to provide for such forms of information.
According to timaf.org; Information is the term we use to stand for all forms of preserved communication that organizations care to produce, store and distribute. If we communicate it and record it, it is information. So, for us, information is anything from sales figures in a database to a video on philosophy viewed on a mobile phone.
Information management is the organized collection, storage and use of information for the benefit of an enterprise.
These definitions are intentionally wide enough to cover content, document, asset, data, records and all other ‘information managements’ that organizations do. We believe that while each of these “sub-disciplines” has its own tools and types of information, there is much more that unites them than divides them.
The definitions are intentionally quite practical. For us, information management simply means moving pieces of recorded communication from creation to consumption to retirement. The definitions are crafted to carve out a niche for the information manager. Information managers make sure that recorded communication can be amassed and distributed in a way that benefits their organization. Finally our definitions are crafted to be a simple guiding principle. Any person working in any information project can use this definition to remain focused on the ultimate aim of their particular kind of work.
According to Pcmag.com the discipline that analyzes information as an organizational resource. It covers the definitions, uses, value and distribution of all data and information within an organization whether processed by computer or not. It evaluates the kinds of data/information an organization requires in order to function and progress effectively.
Information can be complex because business transactions often impact every area within a company. It must be analyzed and understood before effective computer solutions are developed.
METHODOLGY AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS
System analysis describes the process of collecting fact in respect of the existing system, its procedure and mode of operation. This is to obtain a full picture of the prevailing situation so that an efficient and effective computerized system may be designed and implemented. A methodology can simply be as a set of procedure that one follows from the beginning to the completion of the software development process.
There are many established design methods, each with its set of dedicated supporters. However there are five main methodologies that are internationally accepted namely: The expert system Approach to software Engineering, prototyping, Usability Engineering Methodology, object oriented Analysis and design methodology (OOADM) and structured System Analysis and design Methodology (SSADM).
SYSTEMS DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
This chapter focuses on the design of the new or proposed system. The design of all the graphical user interfaces and database are captured here. For optimum and better design of the new system, the old system was scrutinized carefully to identify its problems then the new system was formed which would deal with the problems of the old system.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
This research focused on design and implementing a system that will solve the challenges faced by INEC commission, in terms of effective administrative management and project implementation among others. It started with the execution of a thorough investigation and analysis of the manual system and finally to the design and implementation of the new system. The release of this new system will solve the shortcomings of the existing system by reducing time, stress and resources spent while using the manual system.
Areas of Application
As the web is growing and the number of users in the internet increasing, there is need to continue to build solutions that will support this number of users. It is no news that, most businesses, organizations and even schools are moving from the traditional desktop based computing to operations on the web. Almost every institution possesses a form of online presence in order to boost their activities. The system can be applied by organizations to collate information, store and manage retrieval of information. It will help in the process of party registration, party verification and endorsement.
Suggested Area for further research
Any researcher seeking to redo this work, should focus on expanding its scope to include other every other operations on the organization. Also, a mobile app version can be developed to make the system more user friendly and easy to access.
The system is recommended for the Nigerian Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). Also, we recommend that the current infrastructure of the establishment in order to utilize the full potential of the system. There is need to train the staff on how to use the system, and also release training materials for the public to fully understand how the system works.
The design and implementation a political party information system was designed and as a means of managing information about Nigerian political parties. It provides a platform for new and intending parties to submit their applications, and also for existing parties to update their information on the platform. This will provide the organization with the necessary information about this parties.
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