Design and Implementation of an Automatic Street Lighting System Using IOT
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include:
- Examining in broad detail, the overview of the IoT paradigm
- Looking through research papers of previous works done in many other areas although with the use of the IoT paradigm.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter outlines related work in the area of research and development of smart home systems. It gives a brief history about the concept of smart home/home automation systems. The chapter also examines earlier research work and implementations of similar IoT systems.
OVERVIEW OF IOT PARADIGM
The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects referred to as “things”—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the Internet. Rouse(2019).
Things have evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics, machine learning, ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, and embedded systems. Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things. In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the “smart home”, including devices and appliances (such as lighting fixtures, thermostats, home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances) that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers. The IoT can also be used in healthcare system.
There are a number of serious concerns about dangers in the growth of the IoT, especially in the areas of privacy and security, and consequently industry and governmental moves to address these concerns have begun including the development of international standards.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE IOT PARADIGM
The term Internet of Things is over twenty years old but the actual idea of connected devices had been around longer, at least since the 1970s. Back then, the thought was often called “embedded internet” or “pervasive computing”.
The actual term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter&Gamble. Ashton who was working in supply chain optimization, wanted to draw in senior management’s attention to a replacement exciting technology called RFID. Because the web was the most well liked new trend in 1999 and since it somehow made sense, he called his presentation “Internet of Things”.
Even though Kevin grabbed the interest of some P&G executives, the term Internet of Things did not get widespread attention for the next 10 years.
The concept of IoT began to gain some popularity within the summer of 2010. Information leaked that Google’s StreetView service had not only made 360 degree pictures but had also stored plenty of data of people’s Wifi networks. People were debating whether this was the beginning of a replacement Google strategy to not only index the web but also index the physical world.
The same year, the Chinese government announced it might make the web of Things a strategic priority in their Five-Year-Plan.
In 2011, Gartner, the marketing research company that invented the famous “hype-cycle for emerging technologies” included a replacement emerging phenomenon on their list: “The Internet of Things”.
The next year the theme of Europe’s biggest Internet conference LeWeb was the “Internet of Things”. At an equivalent time popular tech-focused magazines like Forbes, Fast Company, and Wired starting using IoT as their vocabulary to explain the phenomenon.
In October of 2013, IDC published a report stating that the web of Things would be a $8.9 trillion market in 2020.
The term Internet of Things reached mass market awareness when in January 2014 Google announced to shop for Nest for $3.2bn. At an equivalent time the buyer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas was held under the theme of IoT.
Cisco has been driving the term Internet of Everything (IoE). Intel initially called it the “embedded internet”.
Other terms that have been proposed but don’t mean exactly all the same are:
This chapter reviews how the existing system works as well as how to produce a better alternative for its improvement. The relationship among actors, entities, platform and information flows within the organization is very important. In a nutshell, system investigation and analysis studies an existing system with the view of improving on it or developing an entirely new system to replace the existing one. The major task here is to design a new system using tested and trusted development methods that is as efficient and probably more efficient than the existing one.
Fact finding for this study was done by examining related publications, research work, journals and books.
The entire system will be built with some software tools generally used for both an automatic lighting system but can also be accessed via a network. These tools will be be represented in the design as follows:
IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULT
This chapter discusses the deployment and testing of the street lighting system after the design and development. The Hardware and Software Requirements as well as Development tools are identified in this chapter.
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE SELECTION
The choice of the programming language is so because of the compatibility with the MPLAB. The programming language is C. The MPLAB has a compatibility for the C programming language.
CONCLUSION, SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
An IoT based smart street light was developed in this project with the view to embrace technology in our everyday life. The system was able to, with machine learning and certain sensors adapt to user experience. This project also emphasized on the AI system which in future may replace the current method of building street lights. This concludes the importance of automation in smart cities and other IoT based developments for ease and comfortability.
In conclusion, the smart street light system comes with its pros and cons: The pros being the ease of use and uncomplicated connection and cons being security and cost restraints. These are quite understandable considering that the Internet-Of-Things is a relatively new paradigm. The smart street light system offers great value in this information and electronic age and provides ease of use by the Artificial Intelligence software.
For future works, improvements can be made in terms of network and data security. Data security should be a vital consideration in development of any further smart systems.
Furthermore, the scope of the project can be eventually broadened to implement these automated street lights in smart cities.
- Arun Jose, R. M. (2015). Smart Home Automation Security: A Literature Review. The Smart Computing Review.
- Charlie Wilson, T. H.-B. (2014). Smart homes and their users: a systematic analysis.
- David Gann, J. B. (1999). “Digital futures. Making Homes Smarter. Imperial College London.
- Robert Eckl, A. M. (2009). Smart Home Challenges and Approaches to Solve them: A practical Industrial Perspective. In A. M. Robert Eckl, Intelligent Interactive Assistance and Mobile Multimedia Computing (pp. 119-130).
- Rouse, M. (n.d.). “internet of things (IoT)”. IOT Agenda.
- Seokung Yoon, H. P. (2015). Security Issues on Smarthome in IoT Environment. In S. I. Park J., Computer Science and its Applications (pp. 691-696).
- Temitope Oluwafemi, S. G. (2013). Experimental Security Analyses of Non-Networked Compact Fluorescent Lamps: A Case Study of Home Automation Security. LASER 2013 • Learning from Authoritative Security Experiment Results, (pp. 13-24).
- Hengyu Wu, Minli Tang and Guo Huang(2010), “Design of multi-functional street light control system based on AT89S52 single-chip microcomputer,” The 2nd International Conference on Industrial Mechatronics and Automation, Wuhan, pp. 134-137.