Mechanical Engineering Project Topics

Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Fruit Juice Extraction Machine

Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Fruit Juice Extraction Machine

Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Fruit Juice Extraction Machine

Chapter One

Aim and Objectives

The aim of this work is to design, develop and carry out performance evaluation of a fruit juice extraction machine. The specific objectives are to:

  • Carry out the design analysis of the juice extractor.
  • Construct the extractor and assemble it.
  • Determine the optimum operating factors for the machine (extraction speed Sand feed rate F).
  • Evaluate the performance of the extractor (juice yield, extraction efficiency and extraction losses).
  • Evaluate the production capacity of the juice extraction machine.




This chapter is a review of the literature that are pertinent to the studies carried out in this work. It also specifically considers some relevant concepts such as fruit juice extraction, agricultural fruits used for juice extraction, nutritional value of fruits and the principal methods of juice extraction from fruits.

Nutritional value of fruits

Fruits are one of the most important foods to mankind and its usefulness can be traced back to the early man ages when it serves as the foremost source of food for man during which he engaged in hunting and gathering so as to survive from age to age. These fruits contain vitamins, enzymes, minerals; natural sugars and cellulose (Davidson et al., 1975). The nutrients contained in fruit juice can be absorbed within minutes. It has low calories and so fresh fruits juice should be included in any weight lose plan to provide abundant vitamin and mineral nourishment with little calories.

It has been estimated that over 70 % of cancer cases is attributed to diet. Several studies have shown that a diet high in fruits (especially Ginger fruits) protect against cancer which may be due to the high level of antioxidant these fruits contain. These antioxidants are compound found in the juice and skin of fruits which help to protect the body against free radicals and therefore may also have a role to play in preventing heart related diseases, ageing and cancer (Steinmtz and Potter, 1991). There are many different antioxidant; they include the vitamin A, C and E, the minerals manganese, selenium, zinc, copper etc.

(Davidson et al., 1975). Vitamin C is required in the production of collagen, the substrate that give structure to muscles, veins, arteries, bones and cartilage. It helps to heal wounds and aids in iron absorption.

Fruit juice also contain Foliate, a B-group found imperatively consumed by women of child bearing age to help reduce the number of babies born with “spinal bifida”. Fruit juices also contain Potassium in significant quantity which help to maintain fluid balance in the body and is also important for cell structure and nerve transmission. A recent scientific study shows that most men suffering from hypertension who ate food rich in potassium were found to have 60 % less chance of having stroke (Davidson et al., 1975).

Drinking of fruit juice with a meal helps the body to absorb more iron from plant food especially to those segments of the population that is iron deficient. The high content of fruit sugar in grape fruits promotes secretion of bile and combats formation of gallstone and acid deposits (Steinmetz and Potter, 1991).

In spite of its extensive use and its obvious benefits to man, fruits have been viewed as a sort of luxury. Historically, this may be attributed to the fact that they are available only in seasons as fresh produce. Even today, fruits juices are considered by many to be a luxury and are far more commonly included in the diet of people from developed nations like USA. Fruit juice extraction is the process of squeezing the liquid content out of fresh fruits, to ease effective storage and prevent unnecessary wastage. The stages involve cutting, crushing, squeezing, pulping and pressing. Extraction can be done manually or mechanically depending on the volume of fruits to be processed. Fruit juice can be obtained from many types of fruit e.g. pineapple, apple, orange, ginger, cashew etc. This transformation of locally produced fruit helps to enhance profitable farming system in various parts of Nigeria (Ndubisi et al., 2013). However, the processing facilities required for this transformation are inadequate and when they exist, they are usually imported with the attendant problems of maintenance and inadequate supply of raw materials in large quantities to keep the machine running efficiently (Akhigbe, 1989). Fruits processing should make the fruit safe for future consumption and maintain quality i.e flavor, odour, appearance and nutritional values. Fruits from which the juice is to be extracted must be fully ripe since this is when their sugar content and flavor are at optimal peak (Ameine and Gruess, 1972). As a result of this, fruits should be processed as near as to the harvest point so as to reduce transportation of fruits over long distance before processing. This will give fresher fruits and thus better quality of extracted juice.

Fruit juice extraction

Fruit juice extraction involves the process of crushing, squeezing and pressing of whole fruit in order to obtain the juice and reduce the bulkiness of the fruit to liquid and pulp. According to Abulude et al (2007), the various processes involved in fruit processing (Figure 2.1) include: sorting, washing, pressing, slicing, crushing and extraction, addition of additives, homogenization, pasteurization (heat treatment), packaging and storage.





This chapter describes in detail the design considerations, analysis, choice of materials, construction, operation and the experimental procedure required to test the fruit juice extractor for ginger, pineapple and orange.

Description of the Motorized Juice Extractor

Figure 3.1 shows the sectional view of the motorized juice extractor. It consists of two feeding hoppers, chopping shaft with spikes, screw conveyor housed in a cylindrical barrel, cake outlet, juice outlet and main frame.




The results of the tests carried out on the motorized juice extractor for pineapple fruits, orange fruits and ginger are shown in Figures 4.1 to 4.9 and Tables A1 to A6.




  • The design analysis of the fruit juice extraction machine was carried out and the machine successfully constructed, assembled and tested
  • The optimum operating speed of the machine for juice extraction was found to be 335 rpm for orange and pineapple fruits, and 476 rpm for ginger, while the optimum feed was found to be F2 (3.0 kg/min) for orange and pineapple, and F3 (3.5 kg/min) for ginger
  • The average juice extraction efficiency at optimum speed (S) and feed (F) for pineapple, orange and ginger were respectively 84 %, 80 % and 71 %; juice yield at optimum Sand F for pineapple, orange and ginger were respectively 74 %, 72 % and 34 %; juice extraction losses for pineapple, orange and ginger were respectively 18 %, 16 % and 9 % at optimum S and F.
  • The production capacity of the developed juice extractor was found to be about 30 litres/hr for orange, 32 litres/hr for pineapple and 24 litres/hr for ginger
  • With a machine cost of about N54,600, it is affordable for small-scale farmers in the rural communities.


  • The length of the auger should be increased and should cover about 95 % of the shaft for proper juicing and easy ejection of seeds.
  • The perforation of the inner cylinder should be increased in order to allow free flow of the extracted juice
  • Pulping machine should be incorporated to separate the juice from the fruit pulp thereby avoiding blockage of the perforations

Contributions to knowledge

The following are some of the contributions to knowledge of this work:

  1. The work has recast the drudgery of manual juice extraction method and the expensive importation of fruit juice extracting machines to Nigeria.
  2. The work has established that the efficiency of extraction of a juice extractor depends on the speed of extraction S, (rpm), feed rate F(kg/min) and nature of fruit.


  • Abulude, F.O; Elemide, A.O., Ogunkoya, M.O., and Adesanyo, W.O., (2007). Design and Performance evaluation of a Juice Extractor constructed in Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(1): pp 31-34
  • Adebayo, A.A., Unuigbe, O.M., and Atanda, E.O, (2014). Fabrication and Performance evaluation of a portable Motorized Pineapple Juice Extractor. Journal, Innovative Systems Design and Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 8, Pp 222 – 229
  • Adewumi, B.A., (1999). Design and preliminary testing of a citrus juice extractor. Nigerian Journal of Tree Crop Research 3(2): 9-18.
  • Adewumi, B.A., and Ukwenya, A. G., (2012). Design, Fabrication and Preliminary Evaluation of a Mango Juice Extractor. Manuscript prepared for publication in the Journal of Post-harvest Technology, Germany.
  • Ajav, E.A. and Ogunlade, C.A. (2014). Physical properties of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale). Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: The Agriculture and veterinary Vol. 14 Issue 8 PP 1-9
  • Akhigbe, O.G (1989). Quality Assurance evaluation of citrus juice produce from a locally fabricated processing machine. Technical bulletin NIHORT: Ibadan 13, 8-10
  • Ameine, B. and Gruess, H.W (1972). The technology of wine making, Avi publishing co. inc, West Port. 46 ASAE Standards, 40th Ed. 1993. EP389.1. Auger flighting design considerations. St. Joseph, Michigan.
  • Badmus, GA, Adeyemi, NA (2004). Design and fabrication of a small scale whole pineapplefruit juice extractor. Proc 5th Int Conf and 26th Annual General Meeting of the N igerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers 26:285–291