Effect of Child Labour and Its Implication on Student’s Academic Performance in Junior Secondary School. A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Mushin, Lagos State
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to examine the effect of child labour on the academics performances of students in some selected schools. Specifically, other objectives of this study are:
- To determine the causes of child labour in Nigeria
- To examine the different acts of child labour in Nigeria
- To determine if child labour has an impact on school attendance of the child
- To determine if child labour has an impact on the academic performance of the child
- To examine ways in which child labour can be curbed in Nigeria
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
Child Labour in Practice
Children are usually regarded as ‘small adult’ who consequently leads to their incorporation into a range of different employment relations. Age, sex and birth order of the child are key characteristics that influence the nature and extent of child labour. Children usually begin to work at different ages. Boyden and Bequele (1988:24) support this view when they state a significant number of children are involved in employing at a very early age of about seven years .Rodriguez (1979: 128 states that children in the city begin work as soon as they can get away from home A research by Gatchalian (1988: 80) found that 23% of the total sample of 403 children in wood based and clothing industries to be below the age of 10 years. Literature shows that the youngest age at which children have been found working is 4 and half years (Abdalla 1988:32).These children were found working in leather turning industry in Cairo Egypt. A child’s birth order influences their participation in child work Kidwel (1981) remarks that first borns is usually the recipient both of both mere parental attention and interaction and of stricter training; they are expected to be more responsible than their siblings. The youngest child does not usually experience the same expectations and pressure as the oldest. The kind of work children are engaged in ranges from domestic, in mines, agriculture or even bonded.(Gatchalian 1988:81) notes that child labourers are mostly employed by small scale enterprises. Children are preferred by employers for their innate characteristics ,docility, speed and visual acuity in addition to their cheap labour (Boyden and Bequele 1988:24).Their employment doesn’t provide any form of binding agreements with their employers. The 9 condition of work most children work in is usually exploitative. It jeopardizes their physical and mental well being. Most of the jobs they do are designed for adult’s .The ILO report (1983:12) states that a child development and well being are not considered by most child employers, they ignore the fact that a child is not an adult and thus not physically capable as an adult work. In terms of remuneration as indicated by ILO report (1983:12) sometimes children receive no pay. This is usually in the informal sector and if any wage is given, it is usually low. In the study by Abdalla (1988:33), approximately 60% of the child workers received ages, 36% were paid apprentices and the rest were unpaid family labour who received only some pocket money. On the Kind of work children do, Gatchalian (1988:81) notes that child workers are mostly employed by small scale enterprises. In hid s study 72% of the children employed in wood industry and about 82% are employed in cloth manufacturing were working in firms which has less than 29 workers. Other kinds of work children are exposed to include mining, bonded children, manual work in industrial workshops among unpaid house work at homes. Rodriguez (1979:125) adds to the list of child work to include informal sector jobs such as shoes black and car washers. Usually these informal businesses are owned by adults but run by children with an aim of exploiting them. Another aspect of child exploitation has been noted by Dyorough (1986; 46) who highlights the incidence of child labour in Nigeria in economic activities for example bus conducting. Boyden and Bequele (1988:24) give reason for the use of children in labour market to be their cost effectiveness as well as their docile characteristics which creates an opportunity for exploitation. Ebigho and Izuora (1986:6) found out that 50 out of 70 child labourers are involved in hawking activities 11.4%were in transporting goods for customers using wheelbarrows and 2.8%attended to machines for grinding local foodstuffs. Most children are involved in paid and unpaid work which is usually exploitative and jeopardizes their physical and mental well being .Most of the jobs they do are designed for adults not children. The ILO report (1983:12) states that a child’s development and well being are not considered by most child employers, they ignore the fact that a child is not an adult and thus not physically capable of adult work without it having repercussions. In his 10 study Abdalla shows that child labour can facilitate adult migration to areas of high employment.
Forms of Child Labour
Child employment manifests in various hazardous forms, which are either risks or hazards. Children exposed to child labour are vulnerable to physical pain and injury particularly being exposed to health hazards (Levison & Murray, 2005). According to ILO (2012) the vast majority of child labour is involved in hazardous occupations such as agriculture, mining, manufacture, construction bonded child labour, domestic work and fishing. Environmental and occupational conditions can impact on the health and development of the children. Children working in different sectors such as agriculture, factories, domestic labour, sex workers and carrying out their illicit activities, migrant labourers, and on the streets as vendors etc. The effect of job and activities can vary from a country to a country. Also working conditions, ages and gender of children involved in the differences too (O. O’Donnell et al., 2002).
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine effect of child labour and its implication on student’s academic performance in junior secondary school. Selected secondary schools in Mushin, Lagos state form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of child labour and its implication on student’s academic performance in junior secondary school. Selected secondary schools in Mushin, Lagos state. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing effect of child labour and its implication on student’s academic performance in junior secondary school.
This study was on effect of child labour and its implication on student’s academic performance in junior secondary school. Selected secondary schools in Mushin, Lagos state. Three objectives were raised which included: To determine the causes of child labour in Nigeria, to examine the different acts of child labour in Nigeria, to determine if child labour has an impact on school attendance of the child, to determine if child labour has an impact on the academic performance of the child and to examine ways in which child labour can be curbed in Nigeria. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected secondary schools in Mushin, Lagos state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
Result of this study affirmed that children who engage in child labour performed academically poorer than their counter parts who do not take part in the activities. The poor performance was attributed to the inability of the labourers to concentrate on their school work as opposed to the non-labourers. The child labourer combine labour with school work and often then not, labour before going to school in the morning and immediately after school dismissed. They have little or no time to do their class assignments or home work.
Parents who cannot adequately cater for their children due to poverty should take them to orphanages where government/private organizations can properly provide their basic needs and educate them to be useful to themselves and the society.
- Government should enforce policies like the Child’s Right Act and any defaulter should be made to face the wrought of the law.
- Street hawking and any unwholesome activities should be banned in order to prevent and curb child labour.
- Government at all levels should enhance growth in children needs by providing all the necessary supports that will promote children mentally, physically, emotionally, socially through the provision of basic infrastructures/services like good schools, social centres, etc.
- Ahmad, A. (2012). Poverty, education and child labor in Alugarhu City – India. Stud. Home Com. Sci., 3, 165–172.
- Akoloh, L., Okenjom, G. P., & Obiahu, C. C. (2016). The effect of child abuse on youths and their academic performance in secondary schools in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of educational Research, 6(4), 170-176.
- Alokan, F. B., & Olatunji, I. C. (2014). Influence of child abuse on classroom behaviours and academic performance among primary and secondary school students. European Scientific Journal, 10(10), 131-140.
- Bass, C. E. (2004). Child labour in sub-Saharan African. Lynne: Rieme Publishers. Basu, K., & Van, P. H. (1998). The economics of child labour. American Economic Review, 88, 412-427.
- Basu, K. (1999). Child labour: Causes, consequences and cure with remarks on international labour standards. Journal of Economic Literature, xxxvii: 35.
- Bhat, B. A., & Rather, T. A. (2004). Child labour in the handicrafts home industry in Kashmir: A sociological study. Int. NGO J. A., 9, 39–400.
- Bhat, B. A. (2011). Child labour in the cotton industry of Uzbekistan: A sociological study. Centre of Central Asian Studies, University of Kashmir.
- Bobwell, J. (1992). The kindness of strangers: The abandonment of children in Western Europe from Catt antiquity to the renaissance. Longman. 51
- Boydera, J. O., Birgitta, L., & Myers, W. (1998). What works for working children. Smedjebacken, Sweden: UNICEF and Save the Children.
- Dessy, S. & Pallage, S. (2003). A theory of the worst forms of child labour. The Economic Journal, 115(50), 68-87.