Effect of Co-Operative Learning on Secondary School Students’ Achievement and Interest in Chemistry in Obubra Local Government
Objectives of the Study
- find out the effect of Co-operative learning method on students‟ academic achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Obubra L. G. A Cross River
- assess the effect of Cooperatives Learning Strategy and Conventional Teaching Method on students‟ achievement of Chemistry in Secondary Schools.
- examine the effect of Co-operative learning method and Conventional Teaching Method on students‟ retention ability of Chemistry in Secondary Schools.
- measure the effect of Co-operative learning method on Male and Female students‟ achievement of Chemistry in Secondary Schools.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
No one theory can explain or predict outcomes of Co-operative learning method; however, some Educational Theories have direct impact and relationship with Co-operative learning method to teaching and learning in the classroom. The behaviorally oriented theory (BOT) and cognitively oriented theory (COT) are used in this study.
The first theory is behaviorally oriented theory: psychologists have developed different learning theories to explain how learning takes place. For instance, Robert.
B.A Martins, L.J,John,W.W and Wilmer,L.J (1983), opine that central to all behaviorally oriented teaming theories is the definition of learning as a change in overt behavior. The child is born empty of psychological content. Behaviorists rely exclusively on behavioral change as an indication of learning. Overt behavioral acts such as starting pointing, writing and demonstrating are used as examples of knowledge that has been acquired and can be measured. Perhaps the most descriptive term in behaviorist learning theory is stimulus response (S-R)
Another psychologist, Gagne (1985), advocates that, before learning specific skills a teacher should identify the prerequisite skills and make sure that the learners possess them. He specified list of building blocks as a learning hierarchy. He classifies learning in to eight and presents them in hierarchical order as follows:
- Signal learning
- Stimulus learning
- Chain (Motor) learning
- Chain (verbal association)
- Multiple discrimination learning
- Concept learning principle or role learning
To strengthen Gagne‟s point of view about learning, Onyeargwu (2009) states that stimulus response learning is seen as the function of the strength of the bond or connection or association between a given stimulus and a given response (example Thorndikean S-R conditioning experiment). Here the reinforcement is necessary if the response becomes more precise in light of what Onyeargwu opines, the researcher sees reinforcement as relevant to be employed in teaching Chemistry using Co-operative learning method in order to improve Academic Achievement of Junior Secondary School students as well as to improve their Retentive levels.
Quasi-experimental Research design was used for the study. Specifically, this study utilized equivalent comparison group designs. It is widely believed to be the most commonly used Quasi – experimental design (Cook and Campbell, 2002). In its simplest form, it requires a pre-test and post-test for a treated and comparison group. The design was used because of its suitability to the demands of comparing two teaching strategies; Co-operative learning method versus Conventional Method of Teaching.
Population of the Study
The population of the study constituted all the Urban and Rural, Male and Female Students in Secondary Schools who Study Chemistry in Cross River State, Nigeria. There are (381) Junior Secondary School in the study area with grand total number of (95,852) Students.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
192 of the Students representing 50% were used as experimental group and were taught be way of Co-operative learning method while the remaining 192 students representing 50% were used as Control Group and were taught with lecture method. This shows that the number of students sampled for the study in both the experimental and control groups were the same. This was aimed at ensuring balanced representations.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study examined the Effect of Co-operative learning method on Student‟s Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Obubra L. G. A Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was guided by five chapters, chapter one of the study accommodated five objectives, five research questions and five hypotheses. Chapter two dealt with review of related literatures that have direct bearing to this study. Chapter three dwells on the methodology of the study while chapter four is on data presentation and analysis and chapter five is on the conclusive aspect of the work. However, the study used the Schools as follows: Government Junior Secondary School, KafinAgur and Government Junior Secondary School, Racecourse were used as Experimental Group; and the selected Students were taught using Co-operative learning method. While Government Junior Secondary School, Ja‟en and Government Junior Secondary School, Janguzawere” Controlled” and the Students were taught through Lecture Method, using JSS II Students.
The review further identifies some of the gaps between the current study and those reviewed with the current seeks to fill.
Furthermore, quasi-experimental research design was used. The study used Purposive Sampling Technique to choose the participating Schools for the Experimental. The study also used Chemistry Achievement Test (SOSAT) and Test of Retention (TOR). The instrument was validated by Supervisors and Statisticians for content and face validity. The study pilot tested the instrument and they were satisfied statistically as fit for the main work.
However, the study used mean and standard deviation and independent sample t- test as data analysis instruments. The study however discovered the following:
- There was no significant difference in the Mean Achievement Scores and Retention Scores of Students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method as the Mean Achievement Scores was 63.91 and Mean Retention ability Scores was 04.
- Co-operative learning method has significance Impact on Students Academic Achievement as the Mean Academic Achievement of the Cooperative Learning group was 63.91 and that of the Lecture Method group was 49.
Therefore, based on the findings of this research, it is concluded that the Co-operative learning method is more effective with Students of Chemistry at Junior Secondary School level than the Lecture Method. The Co-operative learning method is effective for both Male and Female Students at Junior Secondary School level and at Urban and Rural Schools.
The concept of Co-operative learning method has become popular and influential in Education at all levels. It is being seen as an important delivery character of Education. However, the learning process has to be designed by the Educational Institutions keeping in view the requirements and the conveniences of the learners. The intermediate technologies used by the institution in imparting Education help in overcoming the space and time limitations and design flexible Education processes based on the learning needs.
The following recommendations are hereby put forward based on the findings of the study:
- Co-operative learning method should be encouraged among the Chemistry teachers in Cross River state as this method produce effective Academic Achievement and Retention abilities among Junior Secondary School Students compared to teacher-centered
- The use of Co-operative learning method in teaching Chemistry should encourage in co-educational Secondary Schools in the study area. This is because Co-operative learning method is effective with Students of both sexes as indicated by the study
- Similarly, Co-operative learning method should be used by Teachers in Chemistry lessons in all localities as the findings of this study indicated that the approach is effective in teaching Chemistry Students both in Urban and Rural areas in Cross River
- Modern Chemistry instructional materials should be provided in Secondary Schools to insure effective teaching and
- Workshops should be organized for Secondary Schools Teachers to strengthen the need for using teaching strategies so as to do away with the Teacher Centered Approach un-interactive and fear-instilling.
- Chemistry teacher should receive feedback from pupils at regular intervals to portray the effectiveness or otherwise of the instructional
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