Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Effect of Different Storage Methods on the Physicochemical, Sensory, and Microbial Properties of Orange Juice

Effect of Different Storage Methods on the Physicochemical, Sensory, and Microbial Properties of Orange Juice

Effect of Different Storage Methods on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Properties of Orange Juice

Chapter One

The Objective of the Study

            The objective of the study is to determine the effect of different storage methods on the physicochemical, sensory, and microbial properties of orange juice.



Overview of Orange

            Citrus is an evergreen shrub or small trees belonging to the family of Rutaceae, grown in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions, citrus including oranges, Mandarins, Tangerines, Limes, Grapefruits, Lemons, and Citrons, as well as many hybrids and varieties (Waleed, 2019). Fruits reach to maturity stage between mid-December and April in the Northern Hemisphere particularly oranges and grapefruit, also, the fruit available around the year approximately. Citrus fruit one of the most important fruits all over the world, due to health-related elements and valuable components which involves vitamins C, carotenoids, flavonoids, pectin, Calcium, Potassium…etc. Citrus fruits considered a precious resource of soluble and insoluble fiber with numerous benefits such as removing the toxic effects in the body (Pragasam and Rasool, 2013).

Fiber improves the gastric adsorption in the small intestine, decrease the energy absorption process, and maintain the performance of the bile duct and liver. Citrus fruit contained a higher level of flavonoids, terpenes, phytonutrients, and range of phenolic compounds, vitamins C and carotenoids (Pragasam and Rasool, 2013). There are various active compounds extracted from citrus fruits like lemons, grapefruits, sweet oranges, used in treatments of hypertension, other citrus species considered a source of potential antioxidant against heart diseases, anticancer, inflammation, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Each part of citrus fruit contains active ingredients, it is present in fruit flush, juice, even peel and seed depend upon varieties and maturity stage.

Botanical of Citrus

            Citrus is a genus from family Rutaceae which containing 130 genera with several important varieties, Citrus is an evergreen aromatic shrub or small trees native to South-East Asia, but now cultivated in subtropical and temperate region all over the world; Around 70% of the world’s total citrus production is grown in the Northern Hemisphere, in particular, Mediterranean region and the United States, although Brazil and South Africa in Southern Hemisphere. Global citrus production reaches to 124.25 million ton in 2016 China ranking as the biggest producer of citrus followed by Brazil, India, USA, Spain, Mexico, Egypt, Iran, and South Africa (FOA, 2017).

Citrus fruit divided into different groups (Waleed, 2019) as follow:

  1. Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis): including Common orange, Navel orange, Blood orange, and Valencia orange.
  2. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium): bitter orange and their varieties
  3. Mandarin and Tangerine (Citrus reticulata of Swingle) or (Citrus deliciosa of Tanaka): this group are category of easyto-peel citrus, involves varieties with yellow and orange peel, like Satsuma mandarin, Dancy tangerine, some varieties may ripen as early as December such as Clementine and satsuma mandarin, however, late varieties may be harvested at August or September as Murcott and Pixie mandarins.
  4. Lemon (Citrus limon): Fruits mature throughout year, this group including Eureka, Lisbon and Meyer lemon.
  5. Lime (Citrus aurantifolia): including Mexican lime, Indian lime, Tahitian lime, Bearss lime, and key lime, the fruit mature all-over the year
  6. Other kinds: like Citron, Kumquat, and Pomelos.

These citrus fruits are the precious resource of phytochemicals which are beneficial for the human body as vital bioactive medicines, Phytochemicals are naturally present in citrus juices and play a role in physiological functions and metabolic change of human body (Waseem and Rafia, 2019), also, Citrus fruits and juice has a unique value of essential nutrients, and these nutrients protect against several chronic diseases (Lucker et al., 2002). Citrus has potential health benefits like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer, besides that, Citrus juice contains a lower amount of cholesterol that helps for diabetes patients (Li et al., 2006).

Production and Consumption

            In 2010, the production of citrus fruit worldwide was estimated as 122.5 million tonnes with ~8.7 million hectares harvested; oranges were 50%–62% of the total area harvested and total production (FAOSTAT, 2012). Worldwide, there has been a steady increase of estimated per capita consumption of citrus over the last 30 years. However, least developed countries located in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, which generally have the highest proportion of persons with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies (WHO, 2009), also have the lowest consumption of citrus. Despite the growth of the citrus industry in China (FAOSTAT, 2012), people in lower income countries of Africa and Asia consume approximately one-fourth as much citrus as developed countries. In fact, populations in least developed countries consume only 8 g/person/day, six times less than the world average. On the other hand, with the high production of citrus in the U.S., Mexico, Brazil, and Spain it is not surprising that North Americans have the highest estimated consumption/capita/day in the world followed by South Americans and Europeans (FAO, 2012).





             Fresh Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L) was purchased from ogbese market and was transported from to the Department of Food Science and Technology in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State. The processing took place in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology and the analysis were carried in the chemistry laboratory.


            Fresh and wholesome sweet orange purchased were sorted, divided into four groups namely A to D. Group A was processed immediately to obtain juice which serve as control sample. Group B was stored on the shelf for 7 days before processing. Group C was stored in a jute bag for 7 days prior to processing. Group D was stored in refrigerator for the same days then processed to juice. All the juice extracted were kept separately. Physicochemical, sensory and total viable counts were determined on them.




Table 4.1: Physicochemical Properties of Orange Juice Samples





The results from this study show that the orange juice samples stored in refrigerator for 7 days would be the best storage methods since it preserves both the nutrient and qualities of the fresh juice (control sample COJS). Microbial counts of the sample also helps to understand that freshly processed orange and orange stored using refrigerator is wholesome for consumption due to its low bacteria, yeast and mould counts, however storing the orange in jute bag or shelf before processing reduces the physicochemical properties of the orange after processing to juice. In conclusion, orange processed immediately is consider best orange juice due to its untemper nutrient and sensory attributes however storage of the fruit using refrigerator before processing helps to preserve the nutrients and organoleptic properties of the juice.


Based on the finding of this study, it is therefore recommended that more research should be carried out on the antioxidant properties of orange juice stored using the same methods employed in this present study. Also for the sake of preservation it will be recommended to store orange fruit and other food products using refrigerator since it preserve the nutritional properties, organoleptic attributes and also prolong the growth of microbes.



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