Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Effect of Fermentation on the Mineral and Phytochemical Constituent of Biscuits Produced From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soybean Flour

Effect of Fermentation on the Mineral and Phytochemical Constituent of Biscuits Produced From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soybean Flour

Effect of Fermentation on the Mineral and Phytochemical Constituent of Biscuits Produced From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soybean Flour

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study

            The aim of this project study is to determine the effect of fermentation on the mineral and phytochemicals of biscuits produced from wheat, sweet potato and soybean flour.

 Objective of the Study

            The objectives of the study include the followings;

  1. To produce and ferment flour from wheat, sweet potato and soybean flour
  2. To determine the mineral composition from the biscuits produced from the flour blends
  3. To determine the phytochemical properties from the biscuits produced from the flour blends



Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a member of the Poaceae family, is one of the second main grain crops in the world. It is the important staple food of the world which meets most of the protein requirement of the people. In 2017/2018, wheat output exceeded 761.7 million tonnes, and in 2019/2020, global demand was projected to reach 762.4 million tonnes (FAO, 2020). The wide uses of wheat gluten are mainly baked breakfast, and analog meat products. Wheat is often commonly used for crumpets, cookies, flake, chapatis, bread, biscuits, noodles, flour, and grain to livestock, sales, roasted grain, and so forth. As the population increases exponentially, the production of wheat needs to be increased in order to fix the gap between growth and consumption.

Wheat is subjected to many biotic and abiotic pressures regardless of their poor productivity. In addition, there is inconsistency and improper use of fertilizers, lack of information on variants, edaphic features, mismanagement of farmers’ field operations, and technology (Ali et al., 2018). The requirement for wheat fertilizer depends on the accessibility of the crops to the soil (Kumar et al., 2005). Before using fertilizer, it is essential to recognize the condition of the soil’s nutritional condition and plant nutrient uptake. Crops cannot respond well to fertilizer present in soil under inadequate moisture and humidity. Plants under fertilization require additional moisture than plants which are not in fertilization. Besides, the water, nutrient absorption, and the stress response differ from the plant species and their genotypes. A cultivar that performs best in one type of soil can perform poorly in the other type of soil, and vice versa (Olugbemi et al., 2009).

Wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria for centuries (Olugbemi et al., 2009). Ample evidence exists to show that wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria as early as 200BC, although the currently cultivated varieties are relatively recent introduction (Olabanji et al., 2004). However, Nigeria’s domestic wheat production has remained at a very low level in spite of the ever – rising demand for the crop. The constraints to the cultivation of wheat in most wheat growing areas in Nigeria include climatic requirements, appropriate agronomic practices and preference for the cultivation of vegetables (Ohiagu et al., 2007). Development of improved agronomic practices in respect of land preparation, planting, nutrition, water management, crop protection, harvest and post harvest technology have been the major areas where researchers have concentrated their efforts.

Wheat as an important industrial crop is the main raw material in feed mills, with bread, cake, biscuit, pasta, spaghetti, semovita, macaroni, containing reasonable amounts of wheat. The offal is used in compounding life stock feeds. After wheat harvest, the grain is separated from the stalks and chaff. The wheat stalks are used in a variety of applications: mulch, construction material, and as animal bedding. As food, wheat contributes more protein and calories to the diet than any other crop and world trade in wheat far exceeds the contributions of other grains put together (Ohiagu et al., 2007).

   Importance of wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids.




 Collection of Materials

            Wheat, sweet potato and soybean were all purchased from the main market (Oja-oba) in Owo, Ondo State. The raw materials (wheat, sweet potato and soybean) were all processed into flour in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.


Preparation of fermented sweet potato

            Fresh sweet potato root were washed, peeled, sliced, the cleaned sliced sweet potato root was soaked i.e. fermented for 24 hours. After 24 hours the fermented sample was washed, drained, sun dried and dry milled into powder, sieved and packaged in airtight container for further analysis (Fig. 1).




Table 4.1: Phytochemical composition of biscuits produced from fermented flour blends




Researcher have worked extensively on knowing the one best from fermented and unfermented composite flour produced from wheat, sweet potato-soybean flour for producing biscuit. Fermentation might reduce the phytochemical properties of the biscuits samples, although fermented biscuits samples was observed higher in glycosides compared to unfermented biscuit samples, the mineral composition of fermented biscuits has higher mineral composition in terms of calcium and iron than unfermented biscuit samples, while unfermented biscuit sample have higher manganese, zinc and phosphorus compared to the fermented biscuit samples.


            Based on the research, in this study, it is therefore recommended that food industries should look more into production of biscuits from fermented flours, since it helps to reduce the anti-nutrient content of the raw materials which can be harmful to human health.


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