Effect of Fermentation on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Flour Blends From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soy Flour
The objective of the Study
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fermentation on the proximate composition and functional properties of flour blends from wheat, sweet potato, and soy flour
The specific objectives of the study include the followings:
- To determine the proximate composition of the flour blends
- To determine the functional properties of the flour blends
- To assess the effect of fermentation on the flour blends
Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Wheat is the most important stable food crop for more than one third of the world population and contributes more calories and proteins to the world diet than any other cereal crops (Adams et al., 2002; Shewry, 2009). It is nutritious, easy to store and transport and can be processed into various types of food. Wheat is considered a good source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber (Shewry, 2007; Simmonds, 2009) although the environmental conditions can affect nutritional composition of wheat grains with its essential coating of bran, vitamins and minerals; it is an excellent health-building food. Wheat flour is used to prepare bread, produce biscuits, confectionary products, noodles and vital wheat gluten or seitan. Wheat is also used as animal feed, for ethanol production, brewing of wheat beer, wheat based raw material for cosmetics, wheat protein in meat substitutes and to make wheat straw composites. Wheat germ and wheat bran can be a good source of dietary fiber helping in the prevention and treatment of some digestive disorders (Simmonds, 2009).
Common wheat, sp.
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Family: Poaceae – Grass family
Genus: Triticum – wheat
Species: Triticumaestivum – common wheat
Other Species: T. aestivum, T. aethiopicum, T. araraticum, T. boeoticum, T. carthlicum, T. compactum, T. dicoccoides, T. dicoccon, T. durum, T. ispahanicum, T. karamyschevii, T. macha, T. militinae, T. monococcum, T. polonicum, T. spelta, T. sphaerococcum, T. timopheevii, T. turanicum, T. turgidum, T. urartu, T. vavilovii, and T. zhukovskyi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of Materials
Wheat, sweet potato and soybean were all purchased from the main market (Oja-oba) in Owo, Ondo State. The raw materials (wheat, sweet potato and soybean) were all processed into flour in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.
Preparation of wheat flour
Wheat flour was bought from the commercial seller in a popular market in Owo.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1: Proximate composition of fermented and unfermented flour blends
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Fermentation and blending of wheat flour with sweet potato and soybean seed produced composite flour with higher nutritional value as evidenced in increased ash content signifying increased micronutrients, protein and carbohydrate content. In conclusion of soybean and sweet potato had significant effect on the fat and ash content, the moisture content was recorded least in FSF (7.01%). The functional properties of the flour blends were also greatly improved. The flour blend is therefore a potential raw material in food production at household levels and for industrial purposes to combat hunger and provision of nutritious foods to fight malnutrition problems on African content and developing countries.
Based on the findings in this study, it is therefore recommended that the processing techniques (fermentation) and utilization of this flour blends should be encourage in food industries because of its nutritional and functional importance. This will help combat hunger and prevent malnutrition in developing countries.
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