This study was on effect of instructional resources on secondary school students academic performance in accounts. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in markudi, Benue state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made of principals, vice principals admin, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
Chapter One Background of Study
Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc. Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) . According to Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. Obanga (2005) view them as materials things which are used to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual use impact the instructional materials The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment. Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Use of instructional materials can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goals he wants to attain. Brown etal (2005) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows:
It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning
- They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent
- They help to overcome the limited classroom by making the inaccessible accessible.
- They provide a common experience upon which late learning can be developed. They stimulate and motivate students to learn.
They encourage participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate materials used.
Osuala (2010) in his own contribution said it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the student, but also help to bring about an enhance respect for teacher’s knowledge of the subject. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or both to the sense organs during teaching (Aginna-Obu 2000).
Chapter Two Literature Review
The theoretical framework of this research hinges on the theory of learning as described by cognitive psychologists. In theory of cognitive development, mental ability is closely related to language ability. As child grows older, vocabulary and word usage becomes the best single indication of his intelligence. Sensory motor ability is the basis of intelligence and other ingredients are ability to perceive situations accurately, to see relations, to remember, to use good judgement and to persist in solving problems. The psychologist posited that in attempt to learn anything a child must pay attention to it. It also involves exploration of the visual field, fixing the eyes successively on different parts rating these parts and anticipating phenomenon that are not yet clearly perceived (Akanbi, 1989).
This study is of the opinion that agricultural science teachers should use the materials that would enable students to easily perceive learning situations in a positive way, especially in the teaching of agricultural science. According to Akanbi, (1989), distinguished four stages in the development of cognition or intelligence. This concept of stage implies that development takes place in unvarying steps like sequence, regardless of the child’s culture or education. According to Akanbi, the child begins rudimentary concept formation at the pre-conceptional thinking stage. Here the child begins to classify things in certain classes because of their similarity. Here he explains that the child’s rather than his logic being either deductive or inductive, it is transductive. This study here is of the opinion that the teacher should be able to present instructional materials that would enable the students to overcome the problems of transductive. The study here is of the fact that inability of the teachers to utilize the appropriate methods and materials to teach certain concepts in agricultural science has contributed to poor students academic performance in the subject (Farrant, 1980).
Chapter Three Research Methodology
Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information on effect of instructional resources on secondary school students academic performance in accounts. 200 staff of selected secondary schools in markurdi, Benue state was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.
Chapter Four Discussion Findings
Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey. This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.
Chapter Five Summary and Conclusion
Teachers in Benue state adopted the use of counters, abacus, toys, and real objects in both public and private schools. There was no significant variation in the usage of these resources between the public and private schools. Teacher’s gender, academic qualifications, professional qualifications, and teaching experience and age did not influence the utilization of instructional resources in teaching number work in preschools in the sub county.
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