EFFECT OF MORAL INDISCIPLINE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF JOS
1.4 Research questions
- How does disrespect of school rules and regulations influence students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos?
- How does absenteeism influence students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos?
- How does poor time management influence students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos?
2.1 Literature review
This chapter contents the assessment of literature on the independent variable, indiscipline mainly disrespect of school rules and regulations, absenteeism, poor time management assessing the influence they have on the academic performance as put forward by different scholars, conceptual review and theoretical review. It further reviews literature on how these two variables impact each other, clearly underscoring gaps in literatures of different academicians
2.2 Theoretical Framework
This section highlights the theory that helped to explain how indiscipline affects academic performance including their application to this study. This study was guided by; the Theory of Moral Development by Lawrence Korlberg (1958).
The Theory of Moral Development by Lawrence Korlberg (1958) constitutes an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago in 1958. Kohlberg’s scale is about how people justify behaviors; his six stages of moral development are grouped into three levels: pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, and post-conventional morality.
Pre-conventional level, of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. Reasons at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner. A child with pre-conventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society’s conventions regarding what is right or wrong but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring.
In Stage one (obedience and punishment driven), individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. An example of obedience and punishment driven morality would be a child refusing to do something because it is wrong and that the consequences could result in punishment. For example, a child’s classmate tries to dare the child to skip school. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to skip school because he would get punished. Another example of obedience and punishment driven morality is when a child refuses to cheat on a test because the child would get punished
Stage two (self-interest driven) expresses the “what’s in it for me” position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest but understood in a narrow way which does not consider one’s reputation or relationships to groups of people. Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, but only to a point where it might further the individual’s own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” mentality. An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child asks “what’s in it for me?” The parents would offer the child an incentive by giving a child an allowance to pay them for their chores. The child is motivated by self-interest to do chores. Another example of self-interest driven is when a child does his homework in exchange for better grades and rewards from his parents and teachers.
Conventional; The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults. To reason in a conventional way is to judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society’s views and expectations. The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development. Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance of society’s conventions concerning right and wrong. At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society’s norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid, however, and a rule’s appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned.
In Stage three (good intentions as determined by social consensus), the self enters society by conforming to social standards. Individuals are receptive to approval or disapproval from others as it reflects society’s views. They try to be a “good boy” or “good girl” to live up to these expectations, having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self. Stage three reasoning may judge the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences in terms of a person’s relationships, which now begin to include things like respect, gratitude, and the “golden rule”. “I want to be liked and thought well of; apparently, not being naughty makes people like me.”
In Stage four (authority and social order obedience driven), it is important to obey laws, because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society. Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three. A central ideal or ideals often prescribe what is right and wrong. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would, thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules. When someone does violate a law, it is morally wrong; culpability is thus a significant factor in this stage as it separates the bad domains from the good ones. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.
This chapter presents the methodology that the study adopted. It outlines the research design, the study population and sample size and selection, the sampling techniques and procedure, data collection methods and instruments, the methods for ensuring validity and reliability of the data collection instruments, and data analysis methods in the same order.
3.2 Research Design
The study adopted a triangulation of a case study design and a cross-sectional survey design also deploying both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze data. A case study design was chosen because the researcher had neither the time nor financial resources to conduct a national survey of all higher institutions in Nigeria. Secondly, as Mugenda and Mugenda, 2019) states, a case study research design permits a researcher to conduct an in-depth examination of a single phenomenon at a given point in time, to arrive at findings that are applicable to the broader phenomenon that the case represents.
A cross-sectional survey design was preferred largely because it permits a researcher to study a target population by studying a representative cross-section of the population to arrive at findings that are applicable to the entire target population (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2019). The study used both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. quantitative techniques was applied to numeric data, such as effect of indiscipline and students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos while qualitative techniques were deployed for non-numeric data, such as respondents’ views or opinions, preferences, attitudes and feelings.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
The chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the study findings arising from the raw data collected from the field using questionnaires, interview guide and documentary checklist. The first section presents the response rate followed by Scio- demographics information about the respondents, presentation and analysis of the study finding in relation to the objectives of the study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Moral indiscipline on Students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos.
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary, discussion, conclusions and the recommendations of the study. The chapter has been structured according to the objectives of the study which were to establish the effect of disrespect of school rules and regulations by students on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos, to assess the effect of absenteeism on students’ students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos, to establish effect of poor time management on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos.
5.2 Summary of study findings
5.2.1 effect of disrespect of School rules and regulations on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos
The finding indicate that disrespect of school rules and regulations at a positive value of .609** using the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient with probability value (p = 0.000) that is less than 0.01 level of significance, thus a moderate positive relationship of disrespect of school rules and regulations on academic performance, therefore academic performance is mostly likely to be poor if the students do not observe school rules and regulations.
5.2.2 effect of absenteeism on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos
The finding got indicate that absenteeism is positively associated with students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos with a Pearson correlation coefficient of .652** and a probability value of 0.000 which is less than the pre-determined significant level of 0.05.
5.2.3 effect of poor time management on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos.
Finding on this objective confirmed that time management does significantly influence students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos with positive value .682** using a Pearson correlation coefficient, considering the p value at 0.000 which less than 0.05.Thus, adequate emphasis should be given to improve students’ ability to manage their time effectively and efficiently in order to gain academic excellence.
5.3 Discussion of study findings
5.3.1 effect of disrespect of school rules and regulations on academic performance at University of Jos
The finding indicate that disrespect of school rules and regulations at a positive value of .609** using the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient with probability value (p = 0.000) that is less than 0.01 level of significance, thus a moderate positive relationship of disrespect of school rules and regulations on academic performance, therefore performance of students is mostly likely to be poor if the students do not observe school rules and regulations. The findings are line with Cotton, (2011) who argues that rules and regulations are enforced through prefectural bodies and councils, disciplinary committees, teachers and involvement of parents. Cotton (2011), goes on to say, it has become normal in many higher institutions for students to break school rules and regulations with impunity, showing lack of respect to school authority, damaging of school property, beating up their teachers, rioting at any slightest opportunity and even inflicting harm on one another. The consequences from such undisciplined behaviors may result into poor students’ academic performance.
The findings are also consistent with that of Matsoga (2013) who said during his study on discipline in schools of Botswana, discovered wide spread violence and misbehavior existed in many higher institutions. This lack of discipline, which interfered with the teaching and learning process, manifested itself in various ways including bullying, vandalism, alcohol consumption and substance abuse, truancy, inability or unwillingness to do class work at home. Theft was also identified as a common activity among higher institution students. In 2013 students of one of the higher institution in Botswana, broke into a biology lab to steal ethanol some of these students lost their lives, and others lost their sight.
The findings are in line with that of Daily Monitor of (22/5/2014, pg 18) where it was reported that a student of Education from Mbarara University committed suicide after sports betting his fees. He did not follow school rules and regulations that could assist him guide his behaviors at school. The purpose of school rules and regulations is to establish discipline to guide internal social interactions and create order in the school, thus the disrespect of the school rules and regulations is mostly to affect the performance of the students in higher institutions.
The respondents said with a mean score of 3.03 that School authorities’ management could also cause regard of school rules and regulations, this is consistent with Awuor (2018) says that School authorities could also cause disciplinary problems through organizational lapses manifesting in inappropriate policies and programmes. For instance, the nature of the school curriculum, the size of classrooms, poor teaching and learning resources, the competency of teachers handling classrooms, and the nature of time-table schedules are all factors that can cause school regard of school rules and regulations.
Finally, the result are aligned with that of Adams (2013) who asserts that schools rules and regulation are among the strategies designed to instill good conduct of students. This implies self-control, orderliness, good behavior and obedience to school authority. On admission schools especially at university level, students are given school rules, which spell out some of the expectations (Adams, 2013). These rules and regulations specify in most cases what school members should do and what they should not do.
5.3.2 effect of absenteeism on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos
The finding got indicate that absenteeism is positively associated with students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos with a Pearson correlation coefficient of .652** and a probability value of 0.000 which is less than the pre-determined significant level of 0.05, thus failure to attend school may result into poor performance. This findings are consistent with Boloz, 1983 and
DeKalb, 2019) who asserts that absenteeism is detrimental to students’ achievement, promotion, self-esteem, and employment potential.
The finding are in line with Rothman (2011) who asserts that, high student absenteeism rates were found to affect the achievement of students’ that attend regularly by disrupting the existing learning groups.
The findings further revealed that absenteeism demoralizes students from working hard with a mean score of 3.67. Still the respondents agreed that Lack of guidance or parental supervision, domestic violence, poverty, drug or alcohol abuse in the homes cause absenteeism with a mean score of 4.30 while the respondents finally strongly agreed with a mean score of 4.30 that absenteeism makes a student struggle to grasp all that he missed within a short time leading to stress. The above findings are aligned with U.S. Department of Justice, (2011) that asserts that absenteeism can lead to depression and also result in poor quality of education as a result of time lost while being away from school. It could also lead to moral degradation that leads to drug abuse, early pregnancies and unruly behavior.
Still the respondents agreed that lack of guidance or parental supervision, domestic violence, poverty, drug or alcohol abuse in the homes cause absenteeism with a mean score of 4.30 while the respondents finally strongly agreed with a mean score of 4.30 that absenteeism makes a student struggle to grasp all that he missed within a short time leading to stress. The findings are consistent with Williams (2014) who alludes that excessive absenteeism by students may result in unlearned course material from fewer hours of instruction, and a disruption of class instruction for teachers who have to administer remediation for the absent student when he returns to school. Excessive absenteeism by students may additionally result in poor academic achievement because students are not receiving instruction on a consecutive basis. This problem also causes low standardized test scores because absent students are not present to learn key concepts and skills that are assessed on standardized exams.
The research findings are in line with U.S. Department of Justice, (2011) which said that family factors and school factors influence absenteeism in school and identified factors include; lack of guidance or parental supervision, domestic violence, poverty, drug or alcohol abuse in the home, lack of awareness of attendance laws, and differing attitudes toward education. School factors included school climate issues such as school size and attitudes of teachers, other students, and administrators and inflexibility in meeting the diverse cultural and learning styles of the students. Schools often have inconsistent procedures in place for dealing with chronic absenteeism and may not have meaningful consequences available for truant youth
5.3.3 effect of poor time management on students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos
Findings on this objective confirmed that poor time management does significantly influence students’ performance in computer science education at University of Jos with positive value .682** using a Pearson correlation coefficient, considering the p value at 0.000 which less than 0.05. The findings are line with Balduf, (2019) who recognized that poor time management can contribute to academic underachievement, and effective time management can contribute to higher levels of college achievement. If the ability to effectively manage one’s time was indeed positively related to academic performance, then, presumably, interventions that improve time management would be of value to students
From the Findings in table 12 mean score of 3.43 was achieve when the respondent said that procrastination causes poor grades among students. A Mean score of 3.67 was achieved when the respondents said that improper allocation time can contribute to academic underachievement. The findings are aligned with Kaushar, (2013) who asserts that procrastination often puts off doing something, especially out of habitual laziness, thus a result of a cultivated habit, and it impacts on everyone which has affected lot of students who tend to procrastinate at college.
Kaushar, (2013) further says that procrastination plagues people of all occupations and that we all procrastinate at one time or another in our life. Hence, procrastination is everybody’s problem which implies that everybody delay in one way or the other. Though, the levels of procrastination vary from one person to another. The truth is that everybody has a way of day-dreaming and a way of not respecting time; but some do it to the extent of abandoning urgent task and affects the students’ performance
Further, the results revealed that students do waste time on pinking and phoning with a mean score of 4.07. And the respondent said that time spent on serving punishment for indiscipline affects students’ performance with a mean source of 3.07. This is consistent with Kelly, (2012) who also asserts that, poor time management can negatively affect classroom performance in several ways; first, if students don’t structure time for homework and projects, they may not complete them on time. Even if they get work done, procrastination and rushed work will limit performance and grades.
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EFFECT OF MORAL INDISCIPLINE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF JOS