Banking and Finance Project Topics

Effect of Policy Rate on Credit Extension in Nigeria

Effect of Policy Rate on Credit Extension in Nigeria

Effect of Policy Rate on Credit Extension in Nigeria


Objectives of the Study

This study seeks to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. To examine the historical relationship between policy rates set by the Central Bank of Nigeria and the volume of credit extended to businesses and individuals in the past.
  2. To assess the impact of policy rate fluctuations on interest rates and its consequences on credit accessibility by different sectors of the economy.
  3. To recommend policy measures that can optimize the relationship between policy rates and credit extension in Nigeria.



Conceptual Review

Credit Extension Policy

Credit extension policies play a pivotal role in the financial and economic landscape of a nation, as highlighted by Abba, Zachariah, and Inyang (2023). These policies are a set of guidelines and regulations established by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and other regulatory bodies to govern how financial institutions extend credit to businesses and individuals. Credit extension policies encompass a wide range of aspects, including interest rates, collateral requirements, loan terms, and risk assessment.

The definition of credit extension policies encompasses the rules and frameworks that dictate the terms and conditions under which financial institutions in Nigeria can provide credit to borrowers (Abba, Zachariah, & Inyang, 2023). These policies are not static; they evolve in response to changes in the economic environment, financial stability, and the goals of the central bank. Credit extension policies aim to strike a balance between promoting economic growth by providing access to credit and ensuring financial stability by managing credit risk.

The significance of credit extension policies in economic development cannot be overstated. They catalyze economic growth by providing individuals and businesses with the financial resources needed to invest, expand, and innovate. The research conducted by Abba, Zachariah, and Inyang (2023) underscores the fundamental role these policies play in shaping the financial landscape of Nigeria. When well-structured and effectively implemented, credit extension policies can contribute to higher employment rates, increased business activities, and overall economic expansion.

Financial institutions, including commercial banks and microfinance institutions, are instrumental in the implementation of credit extension policies (Abubakar, Sulaiman, Usman, & Mijinyawa, 2019). These institutions serve as intermediaries between savers and borrowers, facilitating the flow of funds by the stipulations set by credit extension policies. They are responsible for conducting risk assessments, evaluating borrowers’ creditworthiness, and ensuring compliance with the policies outlined by regulatory bodies.

The relationship between credit extension policies and economic stability is intricate. Effective policies promote economic stability by fostering responsible lending practices and mitigating excessive risk-taking by financial institutions (Accornero et al., 2018). These policies also address issues related to liquidity and solvency, ensuring that financial institutions maintain an equilibrium that prevents systemic instability.

Consequently, credit extension policies are the backbone of the financial system in Nigeria. Their definition encompasses the rules that govern the provision of credit, making them a cornerstone for economic development. Financial institutions play a vital role in implementing these policies and serve as the conduits for credit distribution. The relationship between these policies and economic stability underscores their significance in maintaining a balanced and robust financial sector, as evidenced by research conducted by Abba, Zachariah, and Inyang (2023). Understanding and effectively implementing credit extension policies are essential for fostering sustainable economic growth and financial stability in Nigeria.





This section outlines the methodology employed in the pursuit of the study’s objectives. It describes the research design, population of the study, sampling techniques, sources and methods of data collection, data analysis, validity, reliability, and ethical considerations.

Research Design

The selection of an appropriate research design is a pivotal decision, as it fundamentally shapes the study’s approach to examining the research objectives (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). In this context, a correlational research design is the chosen methodology due to its strong alignment with the research aims and objectives.

Correlational research designs are well-suited to investigate the complex relationships between macroeconomic variables and their impacts on credit extension policies (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). This design allows for an in-depth exploration of the connections, causality, and influences between the variables under scrutiny. It serves as a powerful tool to reveal underlying patterns and associations within the data.

The selection of a correlational design is strategic and well-justified, as it offers a means to decipher the intricate web of relationships between macroeconomic variables, credit extension policies, and their consequences on economic stability and development. This approach aligns perfectly with the research’s overarching goals, as it aims to unravel the complex dynamics at the heart of the financial and economic landscape, ultimately contributing to more informed policy decisions and improved financial planning (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).

Furthermore, the correlational design is instrumental in enhancing the quality and reliability of research findings (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). By focusing on identifying connections and causality, it ensures that the study not only meets but exceeds its objectives by shedding light on the complex interactions central to the research inquiry. This design offers a structured and systematic approach to exploring correlations and relationships within the data, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics at play within the financial and economic realm (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).

Population of the Study

The population of this study encompasses macroeconomic variables relevant to the research objectives. These variables include but are not limited to GDP growth, inflation rates, policy rates, and unemployment rates. The selection of these variables is justified by their inherent link to credit extension policies, financial stability, and economic development.



The descriptive statistics in Table 4.1 provide an overview of key economic indicators in Nigeria from 2010 to 2022, including GDP growth rate, inflation rate, unemployment rate, monetary policy rate, and interest rate. Understanding these statistics is crucial for assessing the economic conditions and their implications over this period.

GDP Growth Rate: The mean GDP growth rate over this period is approximately 3.73%, with a standard deviation of 2.24. The positive skewness (0.646) indicates a slight rightward skew in the data, suggesting that there are more instances of higher GDP growth rates. However, the positive kurtosis (0.616) indicates that the distribution is platykurtic, meaning it has thinner tails and is less peaked than a normal distribution. The implication is that Nigeria’s economy experienced moderate growth, but the data is spread over a wide range, indicating some periods of more substantial economic expansion and contraction. The platykurtic distribution suggests a relative lack of extreme outliers.

Inflation Rate: The mean inflation rate during this period is approximately 12.85%, with a standard deviation of 3.40. The data exhibits a positive skewness (0.236), suggesting a slight rightward skew, meaning more instances of higher inflation rates. The positive kurtosis (0.616) indicates a platykurtic distribution, similar to the GDP growth rate. This implies that inflation in Nigeria has been moderately high on average during this period, with some variation. The platykurtic distribution suggests that there were no extreme inflationary outliers.



Summary of Findings

The study conducted an extensive analysis of various aspects related to monetary policy, credit extension, and credit risk management in the context of Nigeria. The findings of this research provide valuable insights into the complex relationship between policy rates, interest rates, credit accessibility, and economic growth in Nigeria.

The study’s analysis of the historical relationship between policy rates set by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the volume of credit extended to businesses and individuals unveiled a significant connection between these variables. It was observed that changes in policy rates, particularly rate increases, often coincided with a reduction in the volume of credit extended. This relationship signifies the CBN’s influence on the accessibility of credit in Nigeria.

The historical relationship analysis emphasized the critical role played by the CBN in shaping the financial landscape of the country. It was found that the monetary policy decisions of the CBN, particularly changes in policy rates, have a direct impact on credit accessibility. When policy rates are increased, it leads to higher interest rates in the financial market, making borrowing more expensive. This effect ripples through the economy, affecting the ability of businesses and individuals to secure loans for various purposes.


In conclusion, the findings of this study have yielded significant insights into the dynamics of monetary policy, credit extension, and credit risk management in Nigeria. The analysis provided compelling evidence regarding the historical relationship between policy rates and credit extension, the impact of policy rate fluctuations on interest rates, and the importance of sound credit risk management practices. These findings have crucial implications for economic policymakers, financial institutions, businesses, and individuals in Nigeria.


Based on the findings and the implications drawn from this study, the following recommendations are provided to guide policymakers, financial institutions, and other stakeholders in Nigeria:

  1. Balanced Monetary Policy Decisions: The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should continue to carefully balance its monetary policy decisions. While striving to maintain economic stability and curb inflation, the CBN should be mindful of the potential impacts on credit accessibility. Policy rate adjustments should be made judiciously, considering their repercussions on interest rates and, consequently, the volume of credit extended.
  2. Transparency and Communication: The CBN should enhance transparency in its decision-making processes. Clear and timely communication of monetary policy decisions and their rationale can help businesses and financial institutions anticipate changes, allowing them to adjust their strategies accordingly. This will contribute to the overall stability of the financial sector.
  3. Diversification of Credit Sources: Financial institutions in Nigeria should diversify their sources of credit. While monetary policy rates play a crucial role in influencing borrowing costs, reliance on a single source of funding can make institutions vulnerable to policy rate fluctuations. Diversification can mitigate the risks associated with changes in policy rates.

Contribution to Knowledge

This study contributes significantly to the existing body of knowledge in several key areas, shedding light on the intricate relationship between policy rates, credit extension, and economic stability. The specific contributions can be summarized as follows:

Policy Rates and Credit Extension Dynamics: The study provides valuable insights into the historical relationship between policy rates set by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the volume of credit extended to businesses and individuals. By analyzing historical data over 13 years (2010-2022), the research uncovers a significant connection between policy rates and credit extension. It reveals that changes in policy rates have a substantial influence on the accessibility and affordability of credit. This finding enhances our understanding of how monetary policy decisions impact the real economy, guiding both policymakers and financial institutions in their decision-making processes.


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